Available courses

Course Objectives:

To understand the basic concept of anatomy beginning from the cell organization to organ system Function

To understand the anatomy of upper limb, lower limb, Head and Neck.

To understand the knowledge about endocrine system.

Content: Central dogma of Molecular Biology, One gene on Enzyme theory, introduction to nucleotides and DNA, structure of DNA, DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, introduction to transcription, transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, post transcriptional modification, Introduction to RNA; mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, siRNA, introduction to translation, translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, post translation modification, introduction to mutation, nonsense and missense mutation. DNA damage and repair

Course Detail:

Environmental Hazards and Biosafety

Classification of Hazards, Physical Hazard and safeguard: Environmental Factor, Body Mechanics, Ionizing, Radiation, Patientsafety, on Ionizing radiation, Electricity

Safeguard,Fire Explosions ,Fire safety

Chemical Hazards And safe guards:Anesthesiagases ,SterilizingAgents, Safe handling of Cytotoxic Agents.

Biologic Hazards and Safe guard:Infectivewastes,Biohazards,Reproductivehazards, Risk Management for Quality assurance.

Care of periopertive Environment :Historical background,standards of cleanliness  in surgical, establishing surgicalenvironment,roomturnover between patients,daily terminal cleaning.

Course Outlines:

Common surgical Equipment and Furniture :Aseptic (sterile )Technique, Operating room Attire , sterile Attire, Operating room Table, operating room different parts, Operating table attachment,  Operating room furniture,

Electro Surgical unit, control panel for the Electro surgical unit, Mono polar Electro surgical unit, Bipolar surgical unit, Argon beam coagulation, Auto transfusion machine.

General Surgical Supplies: Surgical sponges , syringes, Tubes,drains,catheter and post-op splints, Suture and suture Needles, Endoscopic Equipment, Laser and types of laser.

Course Content: Structure of oral tissues, Development of mandible and maxilla, Development of tooth and its Supporting structures, Composition of enamel, Formation of enamel, Structure of enamel, Structure, composition and formation of dentin-pulp complex. Composition, formation and structureofperiodontium,Physiologicaltoothmovement,Sheddingofteeth,eruptionofteeth, Function of saliva, Histology of major and minor Salivary glands, Functions of oral mucosa, Structure of oral mucosa,

Course Content: Properties of dental materials, Classification of impression materials, Dental plasters, Plastic impression compound, zinc oxide eugenol, Elastic hydrocolloids, Elastomers, Addition silicones, condensation silicones ,Gypsum products, Dental waxes, Dental investments, Gypsumbondedinvestment,siliconebonded,phosphatebondedinvestment,Basemetalalloys, Gold alloys, Soldering and welding, Casting

Course contents:

Historical review and scope of microbiology, sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis, structure and function

of prokaryotic cell, difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, bacterial growth and metabolism,

bacterial classification, normal microbial flora of human body, mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis, host

parasite interaction, Immune response to infection, common bacterial pathogen prevailing in Pakistan,

introduction to fungi, fungal characteristic, morphology, structure, replication and classification, mechanism

of fungal pathogenesis, common fungal pathogen prevailing in Pakistan.

Course contents:

Introduction to Communication , Meaning and definition of Communication, The process of communication,

Models of communication, Effective Communications in Business, Importance and Benefits of effective

communication, Components of Communication, Communication barriers, Non verbal communication,

Principles of effective communication, Seven Cs, Communication for academic purposes, Introduction to

academic writing, Summarizing, paraphrasing and argumentation skills, Textual cohesion, Communication in

Organizations, Formal communication networks in organizations, Informal communication networks,

Computer- mediated communication (videoconferencing, internet, e-mail, skype, groupware, etc), Business

Writing , Memos, Letters, Reports, Proposals, Circulars, Public Speaking and Presentation skills, Effective

public presentation skills, Audience analysis, Effective argumentation skills, Interview skills.

Course Outlines:

Introduction to hematology, physiology of blood and composition, introduction to bone marrow, structure and

function of bone marrow, blood formation in the body (Intra-uterine and extra-uterine), factors governing

hematopoiesis, erythropoiesis, different stages and factor effecting on erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, different

stages and factor effecting on granulopoiesis, megakariopoiesis, different stages and factor effecting on

megakariopoiesis, introduction to hemoglobin structure, synthesis and function, complete blood count and its

importance, morphology of red blood cells and white blood cells, introduction to anemia and classification of

anemia, introduction to hemolysis (physiological and pathological), introduction to WBC disorders,

introduction to leukemia, etiology, pathogenesis and its classification, leukocytosis, leukopenia, neutrophilia,

condition related to neutrophilia, neutropenia, condition related to neutropenia, eosinophilia, condition related

to eosinophilia, eosinopenia, condition related to eosinopenia, monocytosis, condition related to monocytosis,

monocytopenia, condition related to monocytopenia, lymphocytosis, condition related to lymphocytosis,

lymphopenia, condition related to lymphopenia, basophilia, condition related to basophillia, introduction to

hemostasis, mechanism of hemostasis, function of platelets and coagulation factors, coagulation cascade,

quantitative disorder of platelets, , qualitative disorder of platelets.

Course Contents:

Introduction to clinical bacteriology, sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis, structure and function of

prokaryotic cell, difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, bacterial growth and metabolism,

bacterial classification, normal microbial flora of human body, mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis, host

parasite interaction, Immune response to infection, Gram positive and negative cocci, Gram positive and

negative rods, Gram negative cocco-bacilli, Nocardia and Actinomyces, Mycobacteria, Spirochete,

Mycoplasma, Rickettsia and Chlamydia, minor bacterial pathogen.

Course Contents:

Definitions of a drug pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, therapeutics, pharmacogenetics, therapeutic index,

Pharmacokinetics: Drug passage across cell membrane, Plasma half-life, Steady state concentration, biological half life,

Absorption: sites, enterohepatic circulation, bioavailability, factors affecting systemic availability, pre-systemic

elimination, effect of food on drug kinetics, Distribution: protein binding, Metabolism: results of metabolism of drugs,

sites of metabolism, phases of metabolism, enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, Elimination: Excretion, Mechanism of

drug action: Different mechanisms of drug action. Receptors: Drug binding to receptors, second messenger, receptor

regulation. Dose-response relationship: agonist, antagonist, affinity, potency, efficacy, factors modifying drug response.

Drug interactions: Definitions. Types of interaction: harmful and useful. Pharmacological basis of drug interaction:

pharmacokinetic interactions; pharmacodynamics interactions; antagonism, synergism. An overview of Drugs acting on

parasympathetic system, Antihypertensive drugs, An overview of Analgesics: Narcotics and Non-narcotics, An overview

of Drugs acting in gastrointestinal tract, Drugs acting on respiratory tract, An overview of Drugs acting on endocrine


Course Contents:

Introduction to pathology, Cell injury, Cellular adaptation, Acute Inflammation, Chronic

Inflammation, Cell Repair & Wound Healing, Regeneration & Repair, Haemodynamic Disorders,

Edema, Haemorrhage, Thrombosis, Embolism, Infarction & Hyperaemia, Shock, compensatory

mechanism of shock, possible consequences of thrombosis & difference between arterial & venous

emboli, Neoplasia, Dysplasia, benign and malignant neoplasms, metastasis

Course Contents:

Introduction to Computer and Window XP/7; MS Office 2007 (Word, Excel, PowerPoint); Internet access and

different data bases available on the internet; Email.

Course Contents:

Historical Perspective: Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama

Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Factors leading to Muslim separatism, People and

Land, Indus Civilization, Muslim advent, Location and Geo-Physical features. Government and Politics in

Pakistan, Political and constitutional phases:1947-58,1958-71,1971-77,1977-88,1988-99,1999 onward

Contemporary Pakistan: Economic institutions and issues, Society and social structure, Ethnicity, Foreign

policy of Pakistan and challenges, Futuristic outlook of Pakistan

Course Contents: Vocabulary Building Skills: Antonyms, Synonyms, Homonyms, One word Substitute, Prefixes and suffixes, Idioms and phrasal verbs, Logical connectors, Check spellings, Practical Grammar & Writing Skill: Parts of Speech, Tenses, Paragraph writing: Practice in writing a good, unified and coherent paragraph, Précis writing and comprehension, Translation skills: Urdu to English, Reading skills: Skimming and scanning, intensive and extensive, and speed reading, summary and comprehension Paragraphs, Presentation skills: Developing, Oral Presentation skill, Personality development (emphasis on content, style and pronunciation)

Course contents:

Biochemical composition and functions of the cell membrane; Chemistry of signals and receptors; Structure and

function of Carbohydrates, Proteins and lipids; biochemical functions of vitamins; biochemical function of

Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iodine and fluoride; Composition and

function of saliva, gastric juice, gastric acid(HCL), pancreatic juice, bile and intestinal secretion; Digestion

and absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals; Body buffers and their mechanism of

action; Acid base regulation in human body; Biochemical mechanisms for control of water and electrolyte

balance; Mechanism of action of hormones.

Course contents:

Functional organization of human body, Mechanism of Homeostasis, Cell structure and its function, function

of different Tissue, Functions of the skin, , Types and function of muscle, Neuromuscular junction, functions

of the endocrine glands, Breathing Mechanism, Exchange of respiratory Gaseous, Transport of respiratory

gases, Function of different part of Digestive system, Function of liver and pancreas, Digestion and Absorption

in Gastrointestinal tract, Patho-Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Formation of Urine by the Kidney,

Glomerular filtration, Renal and associated mechanism for controlling ECF, Regulation of Acid-Base Balance,

Male Reproductive System ( Male ), Prostate gland, Spermatogenesis, Female Reproductive System, Menstrual

Cycle and Pregnancy and parturition, Mammary Glands and Lactation and Fertility Control

Course contents: Musculo skeletal system(Axial and Appendicular),Axial Skeleton, Different bones of human

body, Axial and Appendicular Skeleton, Classification on the basis of development, region and function,

General concept of ossification of bones, parts young bone, Blood supply of long bones. Joints Structural

Regional and functional classification of joints,Characteristics of synovial joints, Classification of synovial

joints, Movements of synovial joints. Muscular System Parts of muscle Classification of muscles (skeletal,

Cardiac, smooth) Thoracic wall: Muscles of thorax, Surface Anatomy, Trachea, lungs, pleura, mammary glands

(breast), Heart and thoracic vessels. Thoracic cavity: Mediastinum, Lungs, bronchi, blood supply and lymphatic

Abdominal wall: Skin, nerve and blood supply, Muscles of anterior abdominal wall. Abdominal cavity: General

Arrangement of the Abdominal Viscera, Peritoneum, Omenta, mesenteries, Stomach, blood, nerve, lymphatic

supply, Small intestine, blood, nervous and lymphatic supply, Large intestine: blood nerve and lymphatic

supply. The pelvic wall: Anterior, posterior wall, diaphragm. Pelvic cavity: Ureters, urinary bladder Male

genital organs, Female genital organs, Muscles of pelvic region, blood supply, nerve supply, Special Senses.



The depth of the subject will only be diagram , labeling of the diagram. And brief


Course Contents STUDY HOURS


A Introduction 3+2

A1 Anatomical terms

A2 Anatomical positions

B The study of human cell and functions of organelles, Nucleus, DNA helix,

RNA, genetic codes Chromosomes.

B1 Cell Division 3+2

B2 Mitosis and Meiosis of cell


C1 Different Types of tissues.

C2 Connective tissues.

C3 Epithelial tissues.

C4 Muscle tissues.

C5 Nervous tissues.

C6 Blood tissues.

D The Skeleton 18+4

D1 Definition of bone

D2 Types

D3 Name of bones (the skull, face, thorax, vertebral Colum, pelvis upper limb

and lower limb

D4 Diagram and labeling the following individual bones.

Clavicle, scapula, hummers, radius, ulna, sternum, rib, vertebra, pelvis,

femur, and tibia.

E The Joints 6+2

E1 Definition

E2 Type

E3 upper and lower limb joints and there movement.

F Muscular system 12+6

F1 Definition

F2 Types

F3 Important Muscles Name of upper and lower limb.

G The Gastro Intestinal Systems


G1 Mouth

G2 Pharynx

G3 Esophagus

G4 Stomach

G5 Small Intestine

G6 Large Intestine

G7 Accessory organs (Liver, Spleen, Pancreas & Gall Bladder)

H Respiratory System


H1 Organs of respiration

H2 Upper respiratory tract

H3 Lower respiratory tract

I The circulatory system


I1 Structure of heart. Different chambers of heart, main arteries arising from

the heart

I2 Main veins of the heart, branches of arch of aorta, Thoracic aorta,

abdominal aorta.

I3 Main vessels of upper and lower limbs.

K The Nervous System 15+4

K1 Introduction to

CNS central nervous system and Peripheral Nervous System

K2 Name different part of brain with short discretion.

Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Mid Brain, pons and medulla oblongata,

K3 Name of cranial nerves

K4 Name of upper and lower limb nerves

L The urinary system 4+2

L1 Structure of kidney, urethra, urinary bladder, prostate gland and ureter

L2 Differences of right and left kidneys.

M The Reproductive System 9+2

M1 Name of Male reproductive system with short description.

M2 Name of Female Reproductive System with short description.

N The Endocrine Gland 9+4

Short description and position of: -

N1 Pituitary gland

N2 Thyroid gland

N3 Parathyroid gland

N4 Adrenal gland

O The Skin 3+2

O1 Epidermis

O2 Dermis

O3 Sebaceous glands

O4 Nails

P The Special Senses: 6+2

P1 Brief anatomy of eye. Three coats/ layers of eyeball.

P2 Brief anatomy of ear Outer, middle and inner ear,

nose-inner and outer, Tongue, salivary glands,

Recommended book: Foundation of Anatomy and Physiology by

Kathleen Wilson.

Anatomy and Physiology for nurses by Roger


Reference Book Clinical Anatomy by Richard Snell






Note: This is an introduction to computer science. A brief description and definitions of terms

will be taught to the students.


1. An over view of Computer system. 1+1

2. The shapes of computer today-Super Computer, Main frame, mini computer, Works

stations and PC, 1+1

3. Input methods-Key board, Mouse, 1+1

4. Alter native methods of input-hand devices, optical devices, Audio-visual input devices.


5. Monitors and sound system-Monitors-PC. Projectors, sound system. 1+1

6. Printer and brief introduction to its types. 1+1

7. Transforming data in to information representation, process, speed etc. 2+2

8. CPU-types with definition 1+1

9. Types of storage devices – Magnetic and optical. 1+1

10. Measuring drive information-access time, file compression, transfer rate, interface

standard. 2+2

11. Basic of operating system-interface, programme, files, hardware and software

management 2+2

12. Definitions of Unix, DOS, Macintosh operating system, Windows, OS / 2, Windows NT,

95,98, 2000, Linux. 3+3

13. Words processing and Desk tope publishing software. 2+2

14. Spread sheet software. 1+1

15. Presentation programme 1+1

16. Networking-Standard telephone lines, digital lines, Network in the home. 3+3

17. Internet basics 1+1

18. Accessing, connecting, working on Internet, introduction to DICOM, PACS. 3+3

19. Working with images. 2+2

20. Understanding multi-media. 3+3

21. Basics of information system- Use, Parts. 2+2

22. Programming languages and system development life cycle. 2+2

23. Brief of computer crimes, Viruses, Theft and computer environment 3+3


Fundamental of I.T. concept by Nayaar Kanwal by CECOSE University

Teacher’s Notes



The following bio chemistry contents will be taught briefly


(Theory +Practical)


A Introduction:

A.1 Biochemistry

A.2 Importance of Biochemistry

A.3 PH

A.4 Buffer solutions

A.5 Indicator

B Carbohydrates: 6+2

B.1 Definition

B.2 Classification.

B.3 Clinical significance

B.4 Caloric value of carbohydrates

C Proteins: 6+2

C.1 Definition

C.2 Classifications

C.3 Essential aminacids

C.4 Clinical significance.

C.5 Caloric value of proteins

D Lipids: 6+2

D.1 Definition

D.2 Classification

D.3 Fatty Acids. (Types, essential F.Acids)

D.4 Clinical significance

D.5 Caloric value of fats

E Enzymes: 6+2

E.1 Definition

E.2 Classification

E.3 Diagnostic role of enzymes

E.4 Therapeutic value of enzymes.

F Vitamins: 6+2

F.1 Definition

F.2 Classification

F.3 Water soluble (B, C)

F.4 Fat soluble (A, D, K)

F.5 Clinical significance

F.6 Deficiency disease of vitamins

G Nutrition, food & dietetics: 6+2

G.1 Nutrients

G1.1 Macro Nutrients

G1.2 Micro Nutrients

G.2 Food

G2.1 Food calorie

G.3 Main food groups

G.4 Milk and their clinical properties

H Metabolism: 6+2

H.1 Definitions

H.2 Metabolic rate

H.3 Basal Metabolic Rate

H.4 Factors affecting BMR

H.5 Variations of BMR in diseases


I.1 Importance

I.2 Body fluid compartments

I.3 Extra cellular fluid

I.4 Plasma

I.5 Interstitial fluid

I.6 Intra-cellular fluid

I.7 Trans-cellular fluid

I.8 Composition of body fluid compartments

I.9 Diffusion

I.10 Osmosis

I.11 Osmotic pressure

I.12 Sodium

I.13 Potassium

I.14 Calcium


J.1 Definition

J.2 Regulatory processes

J.3 Chemical buffer system

J.4 Respiratory regulation

J.5 Renal regulation

J.6 Acid-base disorders (introduction)

Recommended book: Essential of Medical Chemistry by Mushtaq Ahmad

Biochemistry for Para Medical / Nurses by Dr. Khalid


Reference book: Lippincott, s Illustrated Reviews Biochemistry

Harper’s Biochemistry

Course Contents STUDY HOURS

A. The cell and its function 6+2

A1. Structure and Functions of a human cell

A1..1 The cytoplasm and its organelles

A1..2 Functional system of the cell

A2. Endocytosis & Phagocytosis

A2.1 Ingestion and digestion by the cell

A.2.2 Functions/Structures of Golgi apparatus

A.2.3 Cell Division

A.2.4 Cell reproduction.

B Circulatory system 3

Cardiovascular system (Heart and circulation) 12+4

B1 Description of Heart and vessels (arteries, vein, and capillaries)

B 2 Cardiac cycle, diastole and systole

B 3 Functions of atria and ventricles

B 4 Functions of valves

B 5 Heart pumping (Work output of heart)

B 6 Cardiac output, stroke volume etc.

B 7 Heart sounds

B 8 Introduction and function of Lymphatic system

B9 Introduction to blood pressure and measuring of blood pressure


C1 Blood Cell and there function

C1.1 RBC

C1.2 WBC

C1.3 Platelets

C2 Composition of blood

C3 Plasma Protein

C4 Blood groups

C5 Coagulation of blood

C6 Definition and classification of immunity

C6.1 Antigen

C6.2 Antibody

D Respiratory System


D1 Function of the lungs

D2 Basic mechanism of respiration

D2 Inspiration, expiration mechanism

D3 Respiratory rate and tidal volume definitions

D4 Rate and control of respiration

D4.1 Chemical control

D4.2 Nervous control

D5 Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and body fluids

E Gastro intestinal tract. 12+4

E1 Ingestion of food, mastication (Chewing)/Digestion and Swallowing

E2 Functions of Saliva, Salivary glands

E3 Functions of stomach

E4 Functions of Saliva, Gastric Secretion,

E5 Storage function, mixing of food

E6 Function of small intestine

E7 Function of Secretions of the small intestine, secretion of large intestine,

Digestion and absorption of food

E8 Function of large intestine

E9 Function of secretion of large intestine,

E10 Digestion and absorption of food

E11 Function of Liver, spleen and gall bladder

E12 Functions of Pancreatic secretion, Bile secretion

F Metabolism 12+4

F1 introduction to Metabolism

F2 Introduction to fat Metabolism

F3 Introduction to protein Metabolism

F4 Introduction to Carbohydrates Metabolism, Role of glucose in Carbohydrate

F5 Metabolism, Transport of glucose in body tissue,

F6 Introduction to Lipid metabolism

F7 Use of proteins for energy,

F8 Vitamins and their metabolic role.

F9 Maintenance of body temperature

G Nervous System 12+6

G1 Functions of brain, cerebrum cerebellum spinal cord.

G2 Name of Cranial nerves and their supply

G3 Introduction to Autonomic nervous system and their function briefly (Parts and


H Endocrine Glands. 12+4

H1 Introduction to endocrine glands

H2 The pituitary hormones and their functions

H3 The thyroid hormone, and there function

H4 The adreno cortical hormones and there function

H5 Parathyroid hormones and their functions

I Reproductive System 12+4

I1 Functions of the male reproductive organs

I2 Functions of the female reproductive system

I3 Testosterone and other male sex hormones

I4 Pregnancy, Lactation and female hormones

J Urinary System 12+4

J1 Function of Kidney

J2 Function of Urinary bladder

J3 Micturition

K Special Senses 12+4

K1 Introduction to Sensory organs and their function

K2 Functions and refracting function of eye

K3 Function of external ear, middle ear and internal ear

K5 The functions of Tongue and salivary glands.

K6 The functions of nose and tonsils / Adenoids.

K7 The functions of skin and its appendages

Recommended Book Foundations of anatomy and physiology by Kathleen


Anatomy Physiology for nurses by Roger Watson.