Biosafety levels, control of hospital infection, biomedical waste management, introduction to virology,  Viral morphology, structure, replication and classification, general properties of virus, pathogenesis and control of virus, common viral pathogen prevailing in Pakistan, introduction to parasitology, Parasite (protozoan and helminthes) morphology and classification, general principal of pathogenesis, immunology and diagnosis of parasitic infection, common parasitic pathogen prevailing in Pakistan.


Introduction, How to request imaging, Interpreting imaging, Hazards of imaging, Current Legislations, Diagnostic Imaging ,Conventional Radiograph, Ultrasound, Computerized Tomography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Ischemic heartdisease, myocardial infarction,angina pectoris,valvularheartdisease,congenital heart diseases, varicose viens,anemias,thallasemia,leukemias,thrombocytopenia,DIC,meningitis,brain tumor,stroke,braintrauma,asthma,pneumonias,tuberculosis,COPD,chronicbronchits,pleuraleffusion,emphysema,nephriticsyndrome,nephroticsyndrome,hypertension,hydronephrosis,renalstone,urinary tract obstruction,aphthousulcer,pepticulcer,malabsorption,hernias,intestinal polyps, gastritis, appendicitis,hemorrhoid,jaundice,livercirrhosis,hepititis,gallstone,rheumatoidarthritis,thyroidgoiter,hypo and hyper thyroidism,diabetesinsipidus,pheochromocytoma,pancreatits,carcinoma of cervix,abnormal uterine bleeding,ectopicpregnancy,carcinoma of breast,vaginitis,benign prostate hypertrophy,carcinoma of prostate,STDs,

Introduction to erythropoiesis, bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy, procedure and importance,
peripheral smear, preparation, drying & staining of peripheral smears, types of stains & methods of preparation,
Criteria for good smear, introduction to anemia, classification, microcytic hypochromic anemia, iron
metabolism, iron deficiency anemia, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia,
classification, pathophysiology and diagnosis and differential diagnosis of thalassemia, sidroblastic anemia.
macrocytic anemia, folat and vitamin B12 metabolism, introduction to megaloblastic anemia, etiology,
pathophysiology and diagnosis, enzymopathy, introduction to G6PD deficiency, pathophysiology, diagnosis and
differential diagnosis, membranopathies, introduction to hereditary spherocytosis, etiology, pathophysiology
diagnosis and differential diagnosis, introduction to sickle cell anemia, etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis,
hereditary elliptocytosis, pathophysiology and diagnosis, introduction to hemolytic anemia, immune hemolytic
anemia, non Immune hemolytic anemia, introduction to aplastic anemia, etiology and diagnosis, introduction to
disseminated intravascular coagulation, etiology and diagnosis.