Available courses

Course Objectives:

To understand the basic concept of anatomy beginning from the cell organization to organ system Function

To understand the anatomy of upper limb, lower limb, Head and Neck.

To understand the knowledge about endocrine system.

Content: Central dogma of Molecular Biology, One gene on Enzyme theory, introduction to nucleotides and DNA, structure of DNA, DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, introduction to transcription, transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, post transcriptional modification, Introduction to RNA; mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, siRNA, introduction to translation, translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, post translation modification, introduction to mutation, nonsense and missense mutation. DNA damage and repair

Course Detail:

Environmental Hazards and Biosafety

Classification of Hazards, Physical Hazard and safeguard: Environmental Factor, Body Mechanics, Ionizing, Radiation, Patientsafety, on Ionizing radiation, Electricity

Safeguard,Fire Explosions ,Fire safety

Chemical Hazards And safe guards:Anesthesiagases ,SterilizingAgents, Safe handling of Cytotoxic Agents.

Biologic Hazards and Safe guard:Infectivewastes,Biohazards,Reproductivehazards, Risk Management for Quality assurance.

Care of periopertive Environment :Historical background,standards of cleanliness  in surgical, establishing surgicalenvironment,roomturnover between patients,daily terminal cleaning.


Course Outlines:

Common surgical Equipment and Furniture :Aseptic (sterile )Technique, Operating room Attire , sterile Attire, Operating room Table, operating room different parts, Operating table attachment,  Operating room furniture,

Electro Surgical unit, control panel for the Electro surgical unit, Mono polar Electro surgical unit, Bipolar surgical unit, Argon beam coagulation, Auto transfusion machine.

General Surgical Supplies: Surgical sponges , syringes, Tubes,drains,catheter and post-op splints, Suture and suture Needles, Endoscopic Equipment, Laser and types of laser.


Course Content: Structure of oral tissues, Development of mandible and maxilla, Development of tooth and its Supporting structures, Composition of enamel, Formation of enamel, Structure of enamel, Structure, composition and formation of dentin-pulp complex. Composition, formation and structureofperiodontium,Physiologicaltoothmovement,Sheddingofteeth,eruptionofteeth, Function of saliva, Histology of major and minor Salivary glands, Functions of oral mucosa, Structure of oral mucosa,

Course Content: Properties of dental materials, Classification of impression materials, Dental plasters, Plastic impression compound, zinc oxide eugenol, Elastic hydrocolloids, Elastomers, Addition silicones, condensation silicones ,Gypsum products, Dental waxes, Dental investments, Gypsumbondedinvestment,siliconebonded,phosphatebondedinvestment,Basemetalalloys, Gold alloys, Soldering and welding, Casting

Course contents:

Historical review and scope of microbiology, sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis, structure and function

of prokaryotic cell, difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, bacterial growth and metabolism,

bacterial classification, normal microbial flora of human body, mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis, host

parasite interaction, Immune response to infection, common bacterial pathogen prevailing in Pakistan,

introduction to fungi, fungal characteristic, morphology, structure, replication and classification, mechanism

of fungal pathogenesis, common fungal pathogen prevailing in Pakistan.

Course contents:

Introduction to Communication , Meaning and definition of Communication, The process of communication,

Models of communication, Effective Communications in Business, Importance and Benefits of effective

communication, Components of Communication, Communication barriers, Non verbal communication,

Principles of effective communication, Seven Cs, Communication for academic purposes, Introduction to

academic writing, Summarizing, paraphrasing and argumentation skills, Textual cohesion, Communication in

Organizations, Formal communication networks in organizations, Informal communication networks,

Computer- mediated communication (videoconferencing, internet, e-mail, skype, groupware, etc), Business

Writing , Memos, Letters, Reports, Proposals, Circulars, Public Speaking and Presentation skills, Effective

public presentation skills, Audience analysis, Effective argumentation skills, Interview skills.

Course Outlines:

Introduction to hematology, physiology of blood and composition, introduction to bone marrow, structure and

function of bone marrow, blood formation in the body (Intra-uterine and extra-uterine), factors governing

hematopoiesis, erythropoiesis, different stages and factor effecting on erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, different

stages and factor effecting on granulopoiesis, megakariopoiesis, different stages and factor effecting on

megakariopoiesis, introduction to hemoglobin structure, synthesis and function, complete blood count and its

importance, morphology of red blood cells and white blood cells, introduction to anemia and classification of

anemia, introduction to hemolysis (physiological and pathological), introduction to WBC disorders,

introduction to leukemia, etiology, pathogenesis and its classification, leukocytosis, leukopenia, neutrophilia,

condition related to neutrophilia, neutropenia, condition related to neutropenia, eosinophilia, condition related

to eosinophilia, eosinopenia, condition related to eosinopenia, monocytosis, condition related to monocytosis,

monocytopenia, condition related to monocytopenia, lymphocytosis, condition related to lymphocytosis,

lymphopenia, condition related to lymphopenia, basophilia, condition related to basophillia, introduction to

hemostasis, mechanism of hemostasis, function of platelets and coagulation factors, coagulation cascade,

quantitative disorder of platelets, , qualitative disorder of platelets.

Course Contents:

Introduction to clinical bacteriology, sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis, structure and function of

prokaryotic cell, difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, bacterial growth and metabolism,

bacterial classification, normal microbial flora of human body, mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis, host

parasite interaction, Immune response to infection, Gram positive and negative cocci, Gram positive and

negative rods, Gram negative cocco-bacilli, Nocardia and Actinomyces, Mycobacteria, Spirochete,

Mycoplasma, Rickettsia and Chlamydia, minor bacterial pathogen.

Course Contents:

Definitions of a drug pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, therapeutics, pharmacogenetics, therapeutic index,

Pharmacokinetics: Drug passage across cell membrane, Plasma half-life, Steady state concentration, biological half life,

Absorption: sites, enterohepatic circulation, bioavailability, factors affecting systemic availability, pre-systemic

elimination, effect of food on drug kinetics, Distribution: protein binding, Metabolism: results of metabolism of drugs,

sites of metabolism, phases of metabolism, enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, Elimination: Excretion, Mechanism of

drug action: Different mechanisms of drug action. Receptors: Drug binding to receptors, second messenger, receptor

regulation. Dose-response relationship: agonist, antagonist, affinity, potency, efficacy, factors modifying drug response.

Drug interactions: Definitions. Types of interaction: harmful and useful. Pharmacological basis of drug interaction:

pharmacokinetic interactions; pharmacodynamics interactions; antagonism, synergism. An overview of Drugs acting on

parasympathetic system, Antihypertensive drugs, An overview of Analgesics: Narcotics and Non-narcotics, An overview

of Drugs acting in gastrointestinal tract, Drugs acting on respiratory tract, An overview of Drugs acting on endocrine

system.

Course Contents:

Introduction to pathology, Cell injury, Cellular adaptation, Acute Inflammation, Chronic

Inflammation, Cell Repair & Wound Healing, Regeneration & Repair, Haemodynamic Disorders,

Edema, Haemorrhage, Thrombosis, Embolism, Infarction & Hyperaemia, Shock, compensatory

mechanism of shock, possible consequences of thrombosis & difference between arterial & venous

emboli, Neoplasia, Dysplasia, benign and malignant neoplasms, metastasis

Course Contents:

Introduction to Computer and Window XP/7; MS Office 2007 (Word, Excel, PowerPoint); Internet access and

different data bases available on the internet; Email.

Course Contents:

Historical Perspective: Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama

Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Factors leading to Muslim separatism, People and

Land, Indus Civilization, Muslim advent, Location and Geo-Physical features. Government and Politics in

Pakistan, Political and constitutional phases:1947-58,1958-71,1971-77,1977-88,1988-99,1999 onward

Contemporary Pakistan: Economic institutions and issues, Society and social structure, Ethnicity, Foreign

policy of Pakistan and challenges, Futuristic outlook of Pakistan

Course Contents: Vocabulary Building Skills: Antonyms, Synonyms, Homonyms, One word Substitute, Prefixes and suffixes, Idioms and phrasal verbs, Logical connectors, Check spellings, Practical Grammar & Writing Skill: Parts of Speech, Tenses, Paragraph writing: Practice in writing a good, unified and coherent paragraph, Précis writing and comprehension, Translation skills: Urdu to English, Reading skills: Skimming and scanning, intensive and extensive, and speed reading, summary and comprehension Paragraphs, Presentation skills: Developing, Oral Presentation skill, Personality development (emphasis on content, style and pronunciation)

Course contents:

Biochemical composition and functions of the cell membrane; Chemistry of signals and receptors; Structure and

function of Carbohydrates, Proteins and lipids; biochemical functions of vitamins; biochemical function of

Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iodine and fluoride; Composition and

function of saliva, gastric juice, gastric acid(HCL), pancreatic juice, bile and intestinal secretion; Digestion

and absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals; Body buffers and their mechanism of

action; Acid base regulation in human body; Biochemical mechanisms for control of water and electrolyte

balance; Mechanism of action of hormones.

Course contents:

Functional organization of human body, Mechanism of Homeostasis, Cell structure and its function, function

of different Tissue, Functions of the skin, , Types and function of muscle, Neuromuscular junction, functions

of the endocrine glands, Breathing Mechanism, Exchange of respiratory Gaseous, Transport of respiratory

gases, Function of different part of Digestive system, Function of liver and pancreas, Digestion and Absorption

in Gastrointestinal tract, Patho-Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Formation of Urine by the Kidney,

Glomerular filtration, Renal and associated mechanism for controlling ECF, Regulation of Acid-Base Balance,

Male Reproductive System ( Male ), Prostate gland, Spermatogenesis, Female Reproductive System, Menstrual

Cycle and Pregnancy and parturition, Mammary Glands and Lactation and Fertility Control

Course contents: Musculo skeletal system(Axial and Appendicular),Axial Skeleton, Different bones of human

body, Axial and Appendicular Skeleton, Classification on the basis of development, region and function,

General concept of ossification of bones, parts young bone, Blood supply of long bones. Joints Structural

Regional and functional classification of joints,Characteristics of synovial joints, Classification of synovial

joints, Movements of synovial joints. Muscular System Parts of muscle Classification of muscles (skeletal,

Cardiac, smooth) Thoracic wall: Muscles of thorax, Surface Anatomy, Trachea, lungs, pleura, mammary glands

(breast), Heart and thoracic vessels. Thoracic cavity: Mediastinum, Lungs, bronchi, blood supply and lymphatic

Abdominal wall: Skin, nerve and blood supply, Muscles of anterior abdominal wall. Abdominal cavity: General

Arrangement of the Abdominal Viscera, Peritoneum, Omenta, mesenteries, Stomach, blood, nerve, lymphatic

supply, Small intestine, blood, nervous and lymphatic supply, Large intestine: blood nerve and lymphatic

supply. The pelvic wall: Anterior, posterior wall, diaphragm. Pelvic cavity: Ureters, urinary bladder Male

genital organs, Female genital organs, Muscles of pelvic region, blood supply, nerve supply, Special Senses.

Biosafety levels, control of hospital infection, biomedical waste management, introduction to virology,  Viral morphology, structure, replication and classification, general properties of virus, pathogenesis and control of virus, common viral pathogen prevailing in Pakistan, introduction to parasitology, Parasite (protozoan and helminthes) morphology and classification, general principal of pathogenesis, immunology and diagnosis of parasitic infection, common parasitic pathogen prevailing in Pakistan.


Introduction, How to request imaging, Interpreting imaging, Hazards of imaging, Current Legislations, Diagnostic Imaging ,Conventional Radiograph, Ultrasound, Computerized Tomography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Ischemic heartdisease, myocardial infarction,angina pectoris,valvularheartdisease,congenital heart diseases, varicose viens,anemias,thallasemia,leukemias,thrombocytopenia,DIC,meningitis,brain tumor,stroke,braintrauma,asthma,pneumonias,tuberculosis,COPD,chronicbronchits,pleuraleffusion,emphysema,nephriticsyndrome,nephroticsyndrome,hypertension,hydronephrosis,renalstone,urinary tract obstruction,aphthousulcer,pepticulcer,malabsorption,hernias,intestinal polyps, gastritis, appendicitis,hemorrhoid,jaundice,livercirrhosis,hepititis,gallstone,rheumatoidarthritis,thyroidgoiter,hypo and hyper thyroidism,diabetesinsipidus,pheochromocytoma,pancreatits,carcinoma of cervix,abnormal uterine bleeding,ectopicpregnancy,carcinoma of breast,vaginitis,benign prostate hypertrophy,carcinoma of prostate,STDs,

Introduction to erythropoiesis, bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy, procedure and importance,
peripheral smear, preparation, drying & staining of peripheral smears, types of stains & methods of preparation,
Criteria for good smear, introduction to anemia, classification, microcytic hypochromic anemia, iron
metabolism, iron deficiency anemia, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia,
classification, pathophysiology and diagnosis and differential diagnosis of thalassemia, sidroblastic anemia.
macrocytic anemia, folat and vitamin B12 metabolism, introduction to megaloblastic anemia, etiology,
pathophysiology and diagnosis, enzymopathy, introduction to G6PD deficiency, pathophysiology, diagnosis and
differential diagnosis, membranopathies, introduction to hereditary spherocytosis, etiology, pathophysiology
diagnosis and differential diagnosis, introduction to sickle cell anemia, etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis,
hereditary elliptocytosis, pathophysiology and diagnosis, introduction to hemolytic anemia, immune hemolytic
anemia, non Immune hemolytic anemia, introduction to aplastic anemia, etiology and diagnosis, introduction to
disseminated intravascular coagulation, etiology and diagnosis.

COURSE TITLE: RADIOLOGY TECNIQUES –I & CLINICAL PRACTICE
MARKS

STUDY HOURS: 60+160 THEORY 120
PRACTICAL: 30
PAPER:
YEAR:
01
2nd
TIME: 03HRS
COURSE CONTENTS
STUDY HOURS
A. POSITIONING AND PROCEDURES
20+50
INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT.
A1 Positions and procedures of x-ray for all bones of upper limbs, quantity of
KV.Milliamp, seconds etc.
A2 Bones of vertebral columns their positions including focusing, position of patient,
KV.milliamp and seconds required, distance from the tube etc.
A3 Bones of lower limbs including pelvis, their positions and KV, milliamp second
required.
A4 Bones of thorax-positions and procedures for x-ray.
A5 Bones of neck and their positions.
A6 Digestive system-position, and procedures.
A7 Urinary system-position, procedure dyes and other medicines used to take x-rays
dose required.
A8 Human reproductive system positions and procedure kV. Milliamp and second
required.
A9 Skull-face, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses, their positions, procedure adopted.
A10 Ear, Mastoid, and Temporal Bones-position procedures.
A11 Respiratory system and heart
A12 ediatric Radiography.
A13 Flurscopy-positions and procedures-comparison and contrast with conventional
radiography.
A14 Mamography.
A15 Myelography.
A16 Introduction to ultrasound, sonographic techniques, preparation and reassurance of
patient.
A17 Conventional Tomography-Its principles & Techniques.
A18 Introduction to C.T.Scan.
A19 Isotope scamming-theory and practice.
A20 Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI)- Introduction, CT scan, vis-à-vis Brain Spinal Cord.
A21 Angiography-Diagnostic and Interventiona
A22 Emergency Radiography.
A23 Radiography for foreign bodies.
A24 heater Radiography.
A25 Ward Radiography.
A26 Introduction to Lithotripsy.
B. X-RAY EQUIPMENT
20+50
B1 Components and controls of X-Ray circuits:-
High tension transformer-Rectification of high tension (Half and full wave)-kV
control and indicators-Filament and control of tube current-Mill amperes
indication-Mains voltage compensation-Main supply and the X- Ray set.
B2 High tension generators:-
Rating of X-Ray generators-self-rectified high tension full wave rectified
circuit-circuit comparisons. Threephases full wave rectified circuit voltage
waveforms are HT. generator constant potential circuit Failing load generators
shared generator.
B3 Fuses, Switches and Inter Locks:-
Fuses, Switches, Circuit Breaker-interlocking circuits.
B4 Exposure switches and exposure timers:-
Switching system timing systems Exposure switching and its radiographic
applications Choices of K.V. Contrast.
B5 Logic’
Binary counting system Logic elements Applications of logic circuits
Radiographic timing and switching circuit.
B6 X-Ray Tubes
Construction of X-Ray Tubes Fixed anode X-Ray tube Rating anode- X-Ray tube
Rating of X-Ray tube characteristics of X-Ray tubes Metal X-Ray tube XRay tubes for mammography choice of an x-Ray tube stands and tube
support.
Filter-types and uses.
Choices of kV and contrast.
Tube diaphragms.
Collimation Nature, types methods and equipment.
B7 Control of scattered Radiation:-
Significance of scatter-Beam limiting devices beam centering devices the
secondary radiation grid movements. Assessment of grid functions. Grids
construction and operation.
B8 Portable and Mobile X-Ray Equipment:-
Main requirement-Portable x-ray equipment mobile x-ray equipment capacitor
discharge mobile equipment cordless mobile equipment operating theatre x-ray
equip.
B9 Fluoroscopic
Direct Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopic image.
B10 Image intensifier.
TV process x-ray image intensifier tube recording the intensified image panel
type intensifier.
B11 Intensifying screens Tomography Basic theory and equipment.
C. RADIOLOGICAL ANATOMY 20+50
C1 Surface Anatomy
C2 Anatomy of upper Limbs
C3 Anatomy of lower Limbs including pelvis
C4 Anatomy of vertebral column.
C5 Anatomy of Thorax.
C6 Anatomy of Neck.
C7 Anatomy of urinary system.
C8 Anatomy of urinary system.
C9 Anatomy of male and female reproductive system.
C10 Anatomy of skull, face, salivary glands ¶nasal sinuses
C11 Anatomy of ear, Mastoid & Temporal bone.
RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1 Physics for radiology students by Dr. M. B Zaffar.
2 First year physics for radiographer by E. Hughes.
3 X-Ray equipment for students radiographers by BN & MO Chesney.
4 Medical X-Ray Techniques and diagnostic radiology by Ploat Publishers.
5 Merrilsallas on radiographic postion and radiological procedures vol I, II & III by
Phillip W Belliager.
Reference books:
1 Text books radiology for residents and technicians by Satish K Bhargava.
2 X-Ray Diagnosis and imaging, Ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI and Radiosotope imaging.
COURSE TITLE: RADIOLOGY TECNIQUES –II & CLINICAL PRACTICE
MARKS
STUDY HOURS: 60+160 THEORY 120
PRACTICAL: 30
PAPER:
YEAR:
02
2nd
TIME: 03HRS
COURSE CONTENTS
STUDY HOURS
A. PRACTICAL LIST OF RADIOLOGICAL ANATOMY
20+50
A1 Introduction to regional anatomy
A2 Demonstration on anatomical Positions & plans
A3 Demonstration of Important Laval marks of head & neck
A4 Demonstrations o important landmark of thorax & abdomen.
A5 General demonstration of skeleton & types of bones
A6 Demonstration of skull bones
A6.1 Cranial bones
A6.2 Thoracic bones
A6.3 Fonaemineas& Striation passing through
A6.4 Anterior of Skull base
A7 Demonstration and vertebral columns
A7.1 Cervical V
A7.2 Thoracic VD7.3Lumbar V
A7.3 Sacral & Coccyx
A8 Demonstration on bones of upper limb.
A8.1 A typical rib
A8.2 Atypical rib
A8.3 Sternum
A9 Demonstration on bones of upper limb
A9.1 Clavicle
A9.2 Scapula
A9.3 Humerus
A9.4 Radius & Meta carpals
A10Demonstration on bones of lower limb
A10.1 Innominate bone
A10.2 Femur
A10.3 Tibia & Fibula
A10.4 Tarsals and meta tarsals
A11 Demonstration on different joints
A11.1 Fibrous joints
A11.2 Cartilaginous joints
A11.3 Synovial joints
A12 Circulatory system
Demonstration on heart as a pumping unit
A12.1 Right atrium Left ventricle
A12.2 Left ventricle
A12.3 Left atrium
A12.4 Left ventricle
A13 Demonstration on different system vessels
A13.1 Acute & its branches
A13.2 Veins & its tributaries
A14 Respiratory system
A14.1 Demonstration on the structure of nasal cavity
A14.2 Demonstration of structure of larynx & trachea
A14.3 Demonstration of structure of larynx & trachea
A14.4 Demonstration on structure of lung & bronchi
A15 Digestive system
A15.1 Demonstration on the different parts of oval cavity
A15.2 Demonstration on esophagus & stomach
A15.3 Demonstration on Small intestine large intestine rectum and anal cana
A16 Accessory Organ
A16.1 Demonstration on pancreas
A16.2 Demonstration on liver & gall bladder
A17 Urinary system
A17.1 Demonstration on the structure of both two kidney
A17.2 Demonstration on Ureters &Urinary bladder& Urethra
A18 Nervous system
A18.1 Demonstration on types of nervous
A18.225.Gross demonstration of different parts of brain
1) A18.3 26.Gross demonstration of spinal card
2) A18.4 27.Gross demonstration of cranial nerve
3) A18.5 28.Demonstration of Autonomic nerves system
B. PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES RADIOLOGY
40+120
B1 RADIOLOGY
B1.1 Introduction general requirements for radiology
B1.2 Characteristics of a radiograph regarding its size, shape position,
density.
B1.3 Demonstration of radiographic positioning /movementsrelation ship
and anatomic te
B1.4 Demonstration of different parts of X-ray medicine & how to clean them
B1.5 Demonstration of care of cassettes
B1.6 Demonstration for the uses of aseptic techniques while handling with
the patients.
B1.7 Demonstration for the development of exposed films in the dark room
B1.8 Demonstration of general body planes/positions/body cavities/division
of abdomen.
B1.9 Body demonstration of arterial terms
B1.10 Radiographic positioning terminology projection
B1.11 Terminology/ body movemB2 UPPER EXTREMITY
 Demonstration of different positioning of upper extremity
e.g. of hand, wrist, fingers, carpal bones, femur, elbow humours
Practical on shoulder projections e.g. axial projection AP,oblique,
tangential
Clavicle PA &Paaxial views
B3 LOWER EXTREMITY
B3.1 Demonstration of different positioning of lower extremity e.g. foot,
leg,thighs,








Foot AP Lateral, medial projections etc.
Ankle projections e.g. Ap Lateral oblique
Leg projections e.g. AP Lateral oblique
Knee projections AP, PA Lateral oblique
femur projection PA, Lateral
Pelvis & upper femur projection AP Lateral
Pelvis & hip joints axial projections, AP Lateral PA, oblique views.
Projections for vertebral column e.g. occipital cervical anticulabous
(Open mouth)AP projection
sacral vertebrae.
cranial, thorax lumbar &B4 CHEST
B4.1 Demonstration for positioning of trachea, lung & heart e.g. AP lateral
oblique
B5 MOUTH & ABDOMEN
B5.1 Radiographic positioning for parietal and submaxillary glands.
B5.2 Demonstrations for routine procedures & Positions e.g. preparation of patients
exposure techniques radiographic projections & radiation
projections
B5.3 Biliary treat
cholengiography&Cholargiogram Procedure/Patient preparation
/Preliminary diet/contraindications
B5.4 Demonstration for contrast studies of gastrointestinal tract e.g. barium meal & follow
through, barium enema preparation for examining room preparation of
patients radiation positioning, exposure term
B6 URINARY SYSTEM
B6.1 Demonstration on autography cystography, contrast used preparation of
patient radiolgic procedure & protection measure
B7 SKULL
B7.1 Demonstration on lateral projections of cranium patient position/central hearing
P.A.Projections AP full basal etcSellaturcica projection B7.2
Projection of nasal bones ¶ nasal sinuses.
B8 RADIATION PROTECTION
B8.1 Demonstration of different methods & shields used for radiation
protection
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES COMPUTED TOMAOGRAPHY
B9
B9.1 Demonstrations for different equipments for tomography
Machine its parts/positioning for tomography for different
areas/immobilization techniques.
B9.2 General rules for Tomography and definition of terms
B10 MAMMOGRAPHY
B10.1 Demonstration of different positions/projections/definition of
different terms.
MYELOGRAPHY
B11
B11.1 Demonstration of different media / preparation of room and patients/positions &
projections for this procedure.
B12 MEGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
B12.1 Demonstration on equipment for MRI/instrument parameters /position for
different regions.2
ULTRASONOGRAPHY
B13
RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
6 Physics for radiology students by Dr. M. B Zaffar.
7 First year physics for radiographer by E. Hughes.
8 X-Ray equipment for students radiographers by BN & MO Chesney.
9 Medical X-Ray Techniques and diagnostic radiology by Ploat Publishers.
10 Merrilsallas on radiographic postion and radiological procedures vol I, II & III by
Phillip W Belliager.
Reference books:
3 Text books radiology for residents and technicians by Satish K Bhargava.
4 X-Ray Diagnosis and imaging, Ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI and Radiosotope imaging.

COURSE TITLE: FIRST AIDS &PATIENT SAFETY
STUDY HOURS: 60+20 MARKS
THEORY:
PRACTICAL:
TIME:
40
10
1:30 Hrs
PAPER:
TERM:
4
2nd
The following First Aids & Safety Patient contents will be taught briefly.
COURSE CONTENTS Study Hours
(Theory + Practical)
60+20
B First Aid 30+10
Definition
 Principles
MANAGEMENT
B1.1 Dressing and Bandages
B1.2 Assisted respiration
B1.3 Shock
B1.4 Types of Shock its signs symptoms Treatment
B1.5 Assessment and Resuscitation of newborn
B1.6 Fractures and his First Aid Management
B1.7 Burns and his First Aid Management
B1.8 Wounds and his first Aid Management
B1.9 Accidents and his first aid Management
B1.10
B1.11
Transport of injured persons especially spinal care
Poisonings-Swallowed/Inhaled persons and first aid
management
B1.12 Bites Stings management human, cat dog insect
B1.13 Choking and first aid management
B1.14 Abdominal pain and first aid management
B1.15 Sport injuries and first aid management
B1.16 Safety at home
C PATIENT SAFETY & PRECAUTION 30+10
C1.1 Electrical Hazards
C1.2 Fire and explosion in hospitals
C1.3 Radiation
C1.4 Other possible hazards in hospitals
C1.5 Infection in hospitals
C1.6 The hospital environment
C1.7 Pathogenic, non-pathogenic microorganisms

C1.8 Modes of spread of infection
C1.9 Kinds of infection
C1.10 Cross-infection
(Precautions and prevention)
Recommended book First Aids Emergencies A complete Patient Care by V k join
Teacher Notes

COURSE TITLE: PHARMACOLOGY
STUDY HOURS: 60+20
MARK:
THEORY:
PRACTICAL:
TIME:
80
PAPER:
TERM:
02
2nd
20
2:30HRS
The following Pharmacology contents will be taught briefly.
COURSE CONTENTS Study Hours
(Theory + Practical)
6+2
A INTRODUCTION
A.1Pharmacology
A.2Definition
A.3Branches / Classification
A.4Drug
A.5Definition
A.6Nomenclature
A.7Pro drug
A.8Placebo
A.9Toxicology
B PHARMACOKINETICS 9+3
B.1Definition
B.2Drug Dosage
B.3Types
B.4Forms
B.5Factor modifying the dosage of drugs
B5 Routes of administration
B5.1Definition
B5.2Types
Enteral routes (oral, rectal)
B6.1 Advantages
B6.2 Disadvantages
Parental routes (IV, IM, ID, SC) & OTHER ROUTES
B7.1 Advantages
B7.2 Disadvantages
B8 Drug absorption
B8.1 Drug permeation
B8.2Factors that modify drugs absorption
B8.3 Bioavailability
B8.4 Drug distribution & Volume of distribution
B8.5 Biotransformation
B8.6 Factor Effecting Biotransformation
B8.7 Elimination of drugs
B8.8 Bioavailability
B8.9 Factors Effecting Bioavailability
C PHARMACODYNAMICS 6+3
C.1.
C.2.
C.3.
C.4.
C.5.
C.6.
C.7.
Definition
Drug receptor
Nature and sources of drugs
Mechanism of drugs action
Sites of drug action
Factors modifying drug effects
Drug antagonism
D. ADVERSE REACTIONS OF DRUGS 6+2
D.1 Over dosage.
D.2 Secondary effects
D.3 Idiosyncrasy
D.4 Hyper sensitivity
D.5 Drug induced diseases.
D.6 Drug tolerance
D.7 Drug dependence.
D.8 Habituation and addiction
D.9Bioliogical variations
D.10Allergy
D.11Tolerance
D.12Efficacy of Drugs
D.13Potenecy of drugs
E CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS:
(Introduction, mode of action, Indications, Adverse effects briefly)
18+5
E.1Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs.
E.2Opioid analgesics & opioid antagonists
E.3 Non-opioid analgesics.
E.4 NSAIDs.
E.5 Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
E.6 Antipyretic.
E.7 Antiemetics.
E.8 Antihistamines
E.9 Antitussive
E.10Bronchdilators
E.11Antidepressants (introduction)
E.12Antipsychotics (Introduction)
E.13Multivitamins
F ANTI MICROBIAL DRUGS 15+5
(Introduction, mode of action, effects, Adverse effects Briefly)
F.1 Anti bacterial agents.
F.2 Anti fungal agents
F.3 Anti amoebic agents
F.4 Anti malarial agents
F.5 Anti viral agents.
F.6 Anti tuberculosis agents
F.7 Antiseptics & Disinfectants.
F.8 Treatment of Scabies.
Recommended book: Text books of Pharmacology by Shamim
Textbooks of Pharmacology by Ferdous
Textbooks of Pharmacology By Inam Danish
Lippincott’s pharmacology
Reference: book
Basic and Clinical Pharmacology by G. katzung

COURSE TITLE: EYE, ENT & SURGICAL DISEASE & CLINICAL PRACTICE
MARKS

STUDY HOURS: 60+160 THEORY
PRACTICAL:
120
PAPER:
Term :
01
4th
30
03HRS
TIME :
COURSE CONTENTS STUDY HOURS
(Theory +Practical)
A. Eye Diseases: 18+30
Definition, Causes, Clinical Feature, prevention and treatment (Briefly)
A1 Conjunctivitis

A2
A3
A4
Keratitis
Uveitis
Extra ocular foreign bodies
A5 Injuries to eye
A6
A7
A8
A9
Inflammation of the lids
Dacrocystitis
Cataract
Trachoma
A10 Pterygium
B. ENT Diseases:
18+30
B1. Ear:
B1.1 Boil in ear
B1.2 Foreign bodies in ear
B1.3 Otitis externa
B1.4 Otitis media
B2. Nose:
B2.1 Boil in nose
B2.2 Epitaxis
B2.3 DNS
B2.4 Fracture of nose
B2.5 Foreign bodies in nose
B2.6 Rhinitis
B2..7 Sinusitis
B3. Throat:
B3.1 Tonsillitis
B3.2 Diphtheria
B3.3 Laryngitis
B3.4 Foreign bodies in throat
B3.5 Tracheostomy
C. Surgical Diseases: 24+40
Definition, Causes, Clinical Feature, Prevention and Treatment (Briefly)
C1 Acute appendicitis
C2 Acute cholecystitis
C3 Acute intestinal obstruction
C4 Chest injuries
C5 Abdominal injuries
C6 Renal colic
C7 Acute urinary obstruction
C8 Hematuria
C9 Catheterization
D. Practical ON THE ALL ABOVE DESEASES 60
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
Receiving of the patient
Record keeping
Wards maintenance
Routine Investigation
Patient preparation for procedure
Pre operative care
Pre operative medication
Postoperative care
Catheterization application
D10 NG Tube application
D11 Preparation for discharge
D12 Introduction to specific routine work in:
D12.1 Eye
D12.2 ENTK
D12.3 Orthopedic
D12.4 EPI
D12.5 Nursery
Recommended Books
1 Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment by Lawrence M. Tierne
2 Drug Information Handbook for Nursing including Assessment Administration,
monitoring
3 Guidelines and Patient Education by Beatrice B. Turkoski.
4 Handbook of Emergencies and General Practice by Norman Lawrence
5 Manual of Clinical Problems and Infection Disease
6 A Text Book of Ophthalmology by E. Ahmed
7 A Text Book of Pathology by Naveed & Sarwar
Reference Books
1 Clinical Medicine by Parveen Kumar, Michalclark by ELBS
2 Community Medicine by Ilyas Ansari
COURSE TITLE: ORTHOPEDIC AND PAEDIATRIC DISORDERS &
CLINICAL PRACTICE
STUDY HOURS: 60+160 THEORY
PRACTICAL:
120
PAPER:
TERM:
02
4th
30
03HRS
TIME :
COURSE CONTENTS STUDY HOURS
(Theory +Practical)
A. Orthopedic Disorders: 8+30
Definition, Causes, Clinical Feature, Prevention and treatment (Briefly)
A1 Common fractures
A2 Type of fractures
A3 First Aid Management
B. MCH 6+20
B1 Antenatal care
B2 Nutrition
C. Pediatric 6+20
Definition, Causes, Clinical Feature, prevention and treatment (Briefly)
C1 Diarrhea & dehydration
C2 Dysentery
C3 Meningitis
C4 Hyperpyrexia
D. EPI 6+20
D1 Name of target diseases
D2 Vaccination against six target diseases
D3 Vaccination schedule
D4 Route of administration
D5 Doses of vaccines
E. Cold chain 6+10
E1 Definition
E2 Maintenance
E3 Clinical significance
F. Skin diseases: 8+10
Definition, Causes, Clinical Feature, prevention and treatment (Briefly)
Common diseases in the community, their identification & management
G. Nursery 20+20
Definition, Cases, Clinical Feature and treatment (Briefly)
G1 Birth asphyxia
G2 Fits in newborn
G3 Jaundice in newborn
G4 Acute respiratory tract infections
G5 Pyrexia of unknown origin
H. Practical ON THE ALL ABOVE DESEASES 30
H1
H2
H3
H4
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
Receiving of the patient
Record keeping
Wards maintenance
Routine Investigation
Patient preparation for procedure
Pre operative care
Pre operative medication
Postoperative care
Catheterization application
H10 NG Tube application
H11 Preparation for discharge
H12 Introduction to specific routine work in:
H12.1 Medical
H12.2 Surgical
H12.3 Genecology & Obstruction
H12.4 Cardiology
H12.5 Medical & Surgical ICU
H12.6 Paediatric
Recommended Books
1 Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment by Lawrence M. Tierne
2 Drug Information Handbook for Nursing including Assessment Administration,
monitoring
3 Guidelines and Patient Education by Beatrice B. Turkoski.
4 Handbook of Emergencies and General Practice by Norman Lawrence
5 Manual of Clinical Problems and Infection Disease
6 A Text Book of Ophthalmology by E. Ahmed
7 A Text Book of Pathology by Naveed & Sarwar
Reference Books
3 Clinical Medicine by Parveen Kumar, Michalclark by ELBS
4 Community Medicine by Ilyas Ansari

Course Title: Health Techniques-I and Clinical Practice

Study Hours: 60+120
1
3rd
Marks
Theory:120
Practical:30
Time: 3hrs
Paper
Term
:
:
Course contents STUDY HOURS
(THEORY+PRACTICAL)
A. GENERAL MEDICINE 40+120
A1. Introduction:
A1.1Clinical observation
Symptoms
1) 
A1.2Vital signs
Signs
2) A1.2.1Pulse
3) A1.2.2Respiratory rate
4) A1.2.3Temperature
5) A1.2.4Blood pressure
6) A1.3Diseases Introduction
7)  Causes
A 2. General knowledge of the following in disease production:
A2.1 Physical agents
A2.2 Drugs
A2.3 Chemical agents
A2.4 Effects of temperature
A2.5 Effects of electricity
A2.6 Effects of radiation
A 3. Infectious diseases:
Introduction , Causes, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,(
Briefly)
A3.1 Measles
A3.2 Rubella
A3.3 Whooping cough
A3.4 Diphtheria
A3.5 Rabies
A3.6 Tetanus
A3.7 Chicken pox
A3.8 Mumps
A3.9 Typhoid fever
A3.10 Bacillary dysentery
A3.11 Food poisoning
A 4.Tropical disease:
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
A4.1 Malaria
A4.2 Amoebiasis
A4.3 Cholera
A 5.Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
A5.1 Aids
A5.2 Gonorrhea
A5.3 Syphilis
B.INTERNAL MEDICINE 80+200
B1.Diseases of circulatory system
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
B1.1 Coronary artery disease
B1.2 Hypertension
B1.3 Rheumatic heart diseases
B1.4 Heart failure
B2.Diseases of respiratory system
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
B2.1 Acute coryza
B2.2 Acute tonsillitis
B2.3 Bronchitis
B2.4 Laryngitis
B2.5 Pneumonia
B2.6 Pulmonary tuberculosis
B2.7 COPD
B2.8 Asthma
B3.Diseases of alimentary tract
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
B3.1 Acute gastroenteritis
B3.2 Worm’s infestation
B3.3 Peptic ulcer
B3.4 Gastritis
B4.Diseases of liver
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
B4.1 Viral hepatitis
B4.2 Cirrhosis
B4.3 Liver failure
C.PRACTICAL WORK on the all above deseases
C1 Patient reception
C2 Maintenance of the records
C3 Look after of the routine investigations
C4 Nasogastric tube care
C5 Care of the all in-situ lines (cannula, catheter, chest tube and drainage
tube if any.)
C6 Health education of the patient as well as of the attendants
C7 Preventive technique and follow up records
C8 Checklist for the discharge of the patient
Recommended Books
1 Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment by Lawrence M. Tierne
2 Drug Information Handbook for Nursing including Assessment Administration, nitoring
3 Guidelines and Patient Education by Beatrice B. Turkoski.
4 Handbook of Emergencies and General Practice by Norman Lawrence
5 Manual of Clinical Problems and Infection Disease
6 A Text Book of Ophthalmology by E. Ahmed
7 A Text Book of Pathology by Naveed&Sarwar
Reference Books
1 Clinical Medicine by Parveen Kumar, Michalclark by ELBS
2 Community Medicine by Ilyas Ansari
Course Title: Health Techniques-II and Clinical Practice
Study Hours: 60+120
2
3rd
Marks
Theory:120
Practical:30
Time: 3hrs
Paper
Term
:
:
Course contents STUDY HOURS
(THEORY+PRACTICAL)
60+160
A5.Diseases of nervous system
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
A5.1 Headache
A5.2 Meningitis
A5.3 Convulsions
A5.4 Coma
A5.5. Strokes
A5.6. Sciatica
A6.Diseases of blood
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
A6.1 Anemia & its types
A6.2 Leukemia
A6.3 Thrombocytopenia
A6.4 Hemophilia
A.Diseases of Urinary system
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
A7.1 Urinary tract infections
A7.2 Acute glomerulonephritis
A7.3 Nephritic syndrome
A7.4 Urinary stones
A8.Endocrine disorders
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
A8.1 Hypothyroidism
A8.2 Grave’s disease
A83 Diabetes mellitus
A9.Diseases of connective tissues:
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
A9.1 Rheumatoid arthritis
A9.2 Osteoarthritis
A9.3 SLE
A10.Toxicology:
Introduction , Cause, Clinical features, Investigation, Treatment & Prevention,( Briefly)
A10.1 Kerosene oil poisoning
A10.2 Organophosphorus poisoning
A10.3 Opium poisoning
A10.4 Acid/alkali poisoning
A11. EMERGENCY CARE IN:
A11.1 Stroke
A11.2 Status Asthmatics
A11.3 Hypertension
A11.4 Hyperpyrexia
B.PRACTICAL WORK on the all above deseases
B1 Patient reception
B2 Maintenance of the records
B3 Look after of the routine investigations
B4 Nasogastric tube care
B5 Care of the all in-situ lines (cannula, catheter, chest tube and drainage tube if any.)
B6 Health education of the patient as well as of the attendants
B7 Preventive technique and follow up records
B8 Checklist for the discharge of the patient
Recommended Books
1 Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment by Lawrence M. Tierne
2 Drug Information Handbook for Nursing including Assessment Administration,
monitoring
3 Guidelines and Patient Education by Beatrice B. Turkoski.
4 Handbook of Emergencies and General Practice by Norman Lawrence
5 Manual of Clinical Problems and Infection Disease
6 A Text Book of Ophthalmology by E. Ahmed
7 A Text Book of Pathology by Naveed&Sarwar
Reference Books
3 Clinical Medicine by Parveen Kumar, Michalclark by ELBS
4 Community Medicine by Ilyas Ansari

COURSE TITLE: HISTOPATHLOGY, PARASITOLOGY AND
MYCOLOGY & CLINICAL PRACTICE

STUDY HOURS: 60+160 THEORY
PRACTICAL:
120
PAPER:
TERM:
02
4th
30
03HRS
TIME :
COURSE CONTENTS STUDY HOURS
(Theory +Practical)
A. HISTOPATHLOGY, PARASITOLOGY AND MYCOLOGY 20+20
A1.Routine Histpathological Techniques
A1.1 Reception and Fixation of biopsy.
A1.2 Qualities of good fixative
A1.3 Factors affecting fixation
A1.4 Gross examination
A1.5 Processing of tissues: manual and automation
A1.6 Steps in processing
A1.7 Embedding and cutting of sections
A1.8 Microtome
A1.9 Floating water bath
A1.10 Decalcification of bone
A1.11 Knife sharpener
A1.12 H and E staining
A1.13 Special stains in histopathology.
A2.Parasitology:
A2.1 Introduction
20+20
A2.2 Classification of parasites.
A2.3 Protozoa: Intestinal, urogenital, blood and tissue protozoa and laboratory
diagnosis
A2.4 Cestodes: Types, morphology, characteristics and life cycle
A2.5 Trematodes: Types, morphology, characteristics and life cycle.
A2.6 Nematodes: Types,morphology,characteristics and life cycle.
A2.7 Stool examination:direct and concentration methods
A2.9 Malarial parasites and leishmania: Types, Life cycles and laboratory diagnosis.
A3.Mycology:
A3.1 Introduction
20+20
A3.2 Classification
A3.3 Cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses.
A3.4 Systemic mycoses.
A3.5 Opportunistic mycoses.
A3.6 Staining in mycology.
A3.7 Laboratory diagnosis.
B. PRACTICAL ON ALL THE ABOVE CONTENTS 100
B1. During the other laboratory sessions the students will be engaged in the
preparation of media, sterilization of glass wares, collection of microbiological
specimens, laboratory reagents, various staining preparations and staining the
slides and isolation of microorganisms from clinical materials.
B2. The students in the Histopathology will be engaged in the preparation of various
solution/reagents/stains/fixatives, processing of tissues, cutting of blocks on
microtome, staining of slides and preparation of cytological specimen for fixation
and staining.
B3. The students in the Parasitology and Mycology sections will be engaged in the
preparation of slides for microscopy from stool, blood, urine and other body
fluids, identifying various ova and protozoa in these specimens and slide
preparation for fungal studies.
RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Manual of Laboratory Medicines AFIP by AFI of Pathology Rawalpindi.
2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Vol. I by Monica.
3. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Vol.II by Monica.
4. A Handbook of Medical Laboratory Technology by VH Talib
5. Medical Micro Biology and Immunology by A Lange Medical Board
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Practical Hematology by Dacie
2. Clinical Chemistry:Principles Methods and Interpretation by Dr. Abdus Salam
Gandapur

Course Title: Pathology Techniques-I and Clinical Practice

Study Hours: 60+160
1
3rd
Marks
Theory:
Practical:
Time:
120
30
3Hrs
Paper
Term
:
:
Course contents STUDY HOURS
(THEORY+PRACTICAL)
60+160
AHAEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD BANKING
A1. Introduction:
A1.1 Introduction to Hematology, definition, scope.
A1.2 Relationship with other subjects of medicine.
A2.
A3.
Phlebotomy.
Microscope:
A3.1 Principle.
A3.2 Types.
A3.3 Care of microscope.
Anti coagulants:
A4.1 Different Types of anti coagulants and its uses.
Blood cells and stages of development:
A4.
A5.
A5.1 Erythrocytic series
A5.2 Leukocytic series
A5.3 Thromobocytic series
A6. Haemoglobin f estimation:
A6.1 Different methods for haemoglobin estimation.
A6.2 Normal values of Hb.
A6.3 Sources of error.
A7. RBC (Erythrocytes):
A7.1 Morphology.
A7.2 RBC count and preparation of diluting fluid.
A7.3 Reticulocytes: staining, count and normal values.
A7.4 Sources of error.
A8. ROMANOWSKI STAIN:
A8.1 Types.
A8.2 Preparation and uses.
A8.3 Preparation and staining of blood films.
A8.3 Blood smear preparation, fixation and staining.
A9. Haematocrit(PCV):
A9.1 Definition.
A9.2 Methods of measurement
 Normal
A9.4 Absolute values:MCV,MCH, MCHC.
A9.5 Method of determination.
A9.6 Normal values.
A9.7 Sources of error.
A10. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR):
A10.1 Methods of sedimentation.
A10.2 ‘Normal values.
A10.4 Interpretration.
A10.5 Sources of error
A11. Leukocytes:
A11.1 Types.
A11.2 Maturation process of granulocyutic, lymphocytic and monocytic series.
A11.3 Normal counts of each series.
A11.4 Differential leukocyte count.
A11.6 Slide making and staining process.
A11.7 Total leukocyte count.
A11.8 Diluting fluid.
A11.9 Sources of error.
A11.10Neubauer chamber and its uses.
A12.1 PLATELETS:
1) A12.1.1 Morphology.
2) A12.1.2 Normal values
3) A12.1.3 Counting methods:Neubar chamber and coulter counter.
4) A12.1.4 Platelet diluting fluid.
5) A12.1.5 Sources of error.
A12.2 ANAEMIAS:
A12.2.1 Introduction
A12.2.2 Classification of anemias.
A12.2.3 Investigation for the diagnosis of anemia’s:
A12.2.4 Peripheral blood smear: slide preparation, staining and morphology of
RBC.
A12.2.5Sickling test.
A12.2.6RBC fragility test.
A12.2..7G6PD test.
A12.2.8 Coombs test.
A12.2.9Acid elution test.
A12.2.10Haemoglobin Electrophoresis.
A13. LEUKEMIAS:
A13.1 Definition.
A13.2 Classification of leukemia.
A13.3 Acute and chronic leukemias.
A13.4 Staining of bone marrow smears.
A13.5 Procedure of staining.
A13.6 Investigations for diagnosing leukaemias
A14. BLOOD COAGULATION:
A14.1 Intrinsic/Extrinsic pathways.
A14.2 Bleeding time estimation method:i.Dukeii.Ivy’s method.
A14.3 Normal values of bleeding time.
A14.4 Sources of error.
A14.5 Clotting time estimation.
A14.6 Normal values
A14.7 PT and APTT: procedure, normal values
A15. INTRODUCTION TO BONE MARROW:
A15.1 Indications.Sites for bone marrow aspiration.
A15.2 Procedure.
A15.3 Trephine biopsy: indications and site for biopsy.
A16. AUTOMATION IN HAEMATOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES:
A16.1 Haematology analyzers.
A17. BLOOD BANKING AND TRANSFUSION MEDICINE
A17.1 Introduction
A17.2 History of blood transfusion.
A17.3 Importance of blood transfusion.
A17.4 Temperature maintenance for blood banking.
A17.5 Record keeping.
A17.6 Donor selection.
A17.7 Venepuncture and blood collection.
A17.8 Labeling and storage.
A17.9 Blood grouping and cross matching: procedures.
A17.10Equipments, sera and reagents used in blood bank.
A17.11 Blood components transfusion.
A17.12 Space and staffing

A18. ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES:
A18.1 Blood group antigens.
A19.2 BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS:
A19.3 1ABO system.
A19.4 2Rhesus system.
A19.5 Sub groups of A.
A20. BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTIONS:
A20.1 Types
A20.2 Investigation for transfusion reactions.
A20.3 Ant globulin (Coomb’s)tests: Direct and indirect Coombs test.
A20.4 Rhantibodytitre.
A20.5 Sources of error.
LABORATORY PRACTICAL WORK/EXERCISES:
(a) Each lecture will be followed by two hours practical class where the students will
apply their theoretical knowledge in the understanding of related Haematological
investigations, which have been proved useful for the diagnosis of human diseases.
(b) During the other laboratory sessions the students will be engaged in the preparation
of Hb solution, RBC/WBC/Platelet/Eosinophil diluting fluids, use of microscope,
procedures of Haematology investigations, calculations involved in these
investigations. Use of Haematology analyzers, performing Hb, TLC, DLC, PCV,
Retic count, MP smear, G6PD Absolute values, BT, CT, PT, APTT, Platelet count
and special stains.
(c) Blood banking: Learning/practicing of phlebotomy, performing blood groups, cross
match, screening of blood for infections diseases. Blood component separation.
RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Manual of Laboratory Medicines AFIP by AFI of Pathology Rawalpindi.
2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Vol. I by Monica.
3. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Vol.II by Monica.
4. A Handbook of Medical Laboratory Technology by VH Talib
5. Medical Micro Biology and Immunology by A Lange Medical Board
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Practical Hematology by Dacie
2. Clinical Chemistry : Principles Methods and Interpretation by Dr. Abdus Salam
Gandapur
Course Title: Pathology Techniques-II and Clinical Practice
Study Hours: 60+160
2
3rd
Marks
Theory:
Practical:
Time:
120
30
3Hrs
Paper
Term
:
:
Course contents STUDY HOURS
(THEORY+PRACTICAL)
A.CHMICAL PATHOLOGY 60+120
A1 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY.
A2 MEASUREMENTS:
A2.1 Length.
A2.2 Weight.Volume.
A2.3 Concentration: morality, molality, normality.
PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTATION:
A3.
A3.1 Colorimetry.
A3.2 Spectropotometry.
A3.3 Flame photometry.
A3.4 ]PH meter.
A3.5 Automation in chemical pathology.
A4 USES OF EQUIPMENTS:
A4.1 Water bath.
A4.2 Centrifuge.
A4.3 Incubator.
A4.4 Deionizer.
A4.5 Pipettes.
A5 PREPARATION OF REAGENTS:
A5.1 Standard solution.
A5.2 Normal solution. Molar solution
A5.3 % solution.
COLLECTION OF SAMPLES.
A6
A7 STORAGE OF SAMPLES.
A8 PROCEDURES FOR ASSAYS:
A8.1 Blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, Urea, creatinine, uric acid, LFT s,
lipid Profile.
A8.2 Equipment used for each type of assay.
A8.3 Apparatus and glassware used for each assay.
A8.4 Reagents or kits required for each assay.
A8.5 Description about each assay.
A9 URINALYSIS:
A9.1 Introduction
A9.2 Urine collection method for routine examination, culture and sensitivity
test.
A9.3 Urine collection for 24 hour proteins and creatinine estimation.
A9.4 Physical examination.
A9.5 Reaction of urine: normal range.
A9.6 Specific gravity of urine.
A9.7 Chemical examination:
A9.8 Urinary proteins.
A9.9 Testing urine for albumin.
A9.1 0Qualitative and quantitative tests for albumin.
A9.11 Urinary reducing substances:
A9.12 Test for glucose in urine.
A9.13 Clinical significance of glycosuria.
A9.14 Test for detune bodies.
A9.15 Examination of urinary sediment.
A9.16 Fresh and well concentrated specimens.
A9.17 Examination of urinary sediments.
A10 RENAL FUNCTION TESTS:
A10.1 Blood urea, serum creatinine, serum electrolytes and creatinine clearance tests.
A10.2 Normal values and interpretation.
A11 DIAGNOSTICS METHODS IN DIABETES MELITIS:
A11.1 Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests.
A11.2 Glucose estimation.
B12 EXAMINATION OF BODY6 FLUIDS.
A12.1 1CSF Examination:
A12.2 2Physical examination.
A12.3 3Chemical examination
A12.4 4Cytology. Count, giemsastain, ZiehlNeelsen stain, gram stain.
A12.5 5Ascetic fluid examination.
A12.6 6Pleural fluid examination.
A12.7 7Exudates and trnsudate.
A12.8 8Seminal fluid examination.
A13 QUALITY CONTROL IN CHEMISTRY.
B .PRACTICAL 60
1 Receptions
 Bio safety
 Record keeping
 Proper sampling, Labeling
 Proper disposition
 Care of instrument
 Care of chemicals
 Introduction to lab: equipment
 Disinfections of equipment
 Machine’s operations
LABORATORY PRACTICAL WORK/EXERCISES:
(b) Each lecture will be followed by two hours practical class where the students will
apply their theoretical knowledge in the understanding of related Haematological
investigations, which have been proved useful for the diagnosis of human diseases.
(c) During the other laboratory sessions the students will be engaged in the preparation
of Hb solution, RBC/WBC/Platelet/Eosinophil diluting fluids, use of microscope,
procedures of Haematology investigations, calculations involved in these
investigations. Use of Haematology analyzers, performing Hb, TLC, DLC, PCV,
Retic count, MP smear, G6PD Absolute values, BT, CT, PT, APTT, Platelet count
and special stains.
(d) Blood banking: Learning/practicing of phlebotomy, performing blood groups, cross
match, screening of blood for infections diseases. Blood component separation.
RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
1. Manual of Laboratory Medicines AFIP by AFI of Pathology Rawalpindi.
2. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Vol. I by Monica.
3. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Vol.II by Monica.
4. A Handbook of Medical Laboratory Technology by VH Talib
5. Medical Micro Biology and Immunology by A Lange Medical Board
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Practical Hematology by Dacie
2. Clinical Chemistry : Principles Methods and Interpretation by Dr. Abdus Salam
Gandapur

COURSE TITLE: PATHOLOGY

STUDY HOURS: 80+40 MARKS
THEORY:
PRACTICAL:
TIME:
80
20
2:30 HRS
PAPER:
TERM:
1
2nd
The following pathology contents will be taught briefly.
COURSE CONTENTS STUDY HOURS
(THEORY+PRACTICAL)
Introduction:
A Pathology 2
A1 Definition
A2 Branches
B. Core of pathology 4
B1 Etiology
B2 Pathogenesis
B3 Morphologic changes
B4 Clinical significance
C. Disease 4+2
C1 Definition
C2 Classification
C3 Cytology
C4 Biopsy
D.Cell injury: 12+4
D1 Normal Cell and Structure of Cell
D2 Cellular adaptation (introduction)
D2.1Hyperplasia
D2.2Hypertrophy
D2.3Atrophy
D2.4Metaplasia
D2.5Distribution of body Epithelium
D3 Cell Injury
D3.1Types
D3.2Causes
Necrosis
D4
D4.1Definition
D4.2Types
D4.2Mechenism of Necrosis
D5 Pigmentation
D5.1Definition
D5.2Types
Pathologic calcification
D6
D6.1 Definition
D6.2 Types
D6.3 Causes Of Hyper calcification
D7 Gangrene
D7.1Definition
D7.2Causes
D7.3Types
D7.4Complication
E
Inflammation
E1 Definition
12+4
E2 Advantage and Disadvantage of inflammation
E3 Types
E4 Acute Inflammation
E4.1Definition
E4.2Changes in acute inflamation
E4.3Clinical signs of actual inflamation
E4.4Out come of Ac inflammation
E4.5Type of inflammatory cell
E4.6Secquance of Cellular Events
E5 Chronic InflammationD5.1Definition
E5.1 Causes
E5.2 Types
E5.3 Outcome of Ch.Inflammation.
E5.4 Difference between Ac. & Ch. Inflammation
F Repair: 8+2
F1 DefinitionProcess of repair
F2 Capacity of Different cell Type
F3 Healing by First. Intention (introduction)
F4 Healing by 2nd Intention (introduction)
F5 Difference between 1st& 2nd intention
F6 Factors affecting wound healing
F6.1 Systemic
F6.2 Local
Complication of wound healing
F7
G Homodynamic Disorder 12+4
G1 Edema
G1.1 Definition and pathogenesis

G1.2 Mechanism of edema
G1.3 Causes
G1.4 Types
G1.5 Clinical effects
G2 Hyperemia& Congestion
G2.1 Definition
G2.2 Causes
G3 Hemorrhage
G3.1 Definition
G3.2 Causes
G3.3 Clinical Features
G4 Thrombosis
G4.1 Definition
G4.2 Types (morphological, clinical)
G4.3 Fate of thrombus
G5 Embolism
G5.1 Definition
G5.2 Clinical Effects
G5.3 Classification
G6 Infarction
G6.1 Definition
G6.2 Causes
G6.3 Types
G6.4 Predisposing factors
H.Shock 4+2
H1 Definition
H2 Types
H3 Stages
K Disorders of immunity
4+2
K1 Immunity Definition
K2 Types
K3 Antigen
K4 Antibody & types
K5 Cells of Immune system (introduction)
K6 Hypersensitivity Reactions (introduction)
L Neoplasia 12+4
L1 Definition
L2 Neoplasia
L3 Neoplasm
L4 Oncology
L5 Dysplasia
L5.1 Definition
L5.2 CausesL5.3Sites
L5.4 Clinical significance
L6 Types of neoplasm
L6.1Benign
L6.2 Malignant
L6.3 Different Between Benign and malignant Tumors
L7 Nomenclature of Neoplasm
L8 Spread of Neoplasm
L9 Staging & Grading of Neoplasm
L10 Clinical features of Neoplasm
L11 Difference between benign & Malignant Neoplasm
L12 Carcinogens and its types
M Microbiology
16+6
 Parasite
 Parasitology
M2.1 Definition
M2.2 Classification of Parasites
M3Virology
M3.1 Definition
M3.2 Classification of viruses
M4Bacteriology
M4.1 Definition
M4.2 Classification of Bacteria
Recommended book: Textbook of Pathology by Inam Danish
Textbook of Pathology by Ferdous
Reference book: General Pathology by Walter and Israel

COURSE TITLE:
STUDY HOURS: 120
PUBLIC HEALTH
MARKS
THEORY:
PRACTICAL/VIVA:
TIME:
PAPER:
TERM:
3
2nd
80
20
2:30 Hrs
The following Public Health contents will be taught briefly.
Course contents:
A. Basic Definition 6
A1 public heath
A2 health
A3 Disease
A4 Illness
A5 Iceberg of Disease
A6 Social Medicine
A7 Social Hygiene
A8 Medical Care
A9 Preventive Medicine
A10 Level of Prevention
B. Primary health care 6
B1 Primary health Care (PHC)
B2 Concepts of Primary Health Care
B3 Components of Primary Health Care
B4 Equity
B5 Effectiveness
B6 Efficiency
B7 ALMA ATA Declaration
B8 Health for All by the Year 2000
C. Human Nutrition 18
C1Nutrition
C2 Nutrients and its classification
C3 Diet
C4 Balanced Diet and its principal of preparing
C5 Calorie
C6 Malnutrition
C7 Starvation
C8 Nutritional Status
C9 Nutrition Assessment
C10 Recommended Daily Allowances
C11 Functions of Nutrients
C12 Food Groups
C13 Preservation of food
C13.1Cooling
C13.1 Drying
C13.3 Salting
C13.4 Smoking
C13.5Canning
C13.6 Chemical Preservation
D Nutritional Needs in Physiological states
D1 Infancy and childhood
D2 Adolescent Nutrition
C3 Adult’s nutrition
C4 Nutrition during pregnancy & lactation
C5 Geriatric Nutrition
E Nutrition Disorders
E1 Vitamin A deficiency disorders
E2 Vitamin B1 and B12 deficiency disorders
E3 Iron deficiency disorder
E4 Vitamin C deficiency disorder
E5 Vitamin D
G Malnutrition
G1 Factor Affecting malnutrition
G2 Protein energy malnutrition
G3 Obesity
D. Community Water supply 6
D1 Introduction
D2 Importance of water
D3 Uses of water
D4 Classification of water
D5 Sources of water
D6 Purification of water
D7 Examination of water
D8 Water Related disease
D8.1 Non-infection water related disease like Metheamoglobineamia in Infants
and Gastric & Bladder Cancers
D8.2 Infection water related disease like Dysenteries, Hepatitis A and Typhoid etc
E. Sanitation 6
E1 Definitions
E2 Importance of sanitation
E3 Refuses
E4 Collection, Removal and disposal of refuse
E5 Method for final elimination of refuse
E6 Collection removal and disposal of human excreta
E6.1 Dry or conservancy system
E6.2 wet system or sewerage system
E7 Hospital waste management
E8 Environment pollution
E9 Causes of environment pollution
F. Mother and child health (MCH) 12
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
Definition
Objective of MCH
Concept of safe mother hood
Maternal health
Antenatal care
F1 Antenatal Visit
F2 Antenatal Service for Mothers
F3 Antenatal advice
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
F11
F12
F13
F14
High-Risk Pregnancies
Breast Feeding and its advantage and disadvantage
Breast care during lactation
Preparation of Brest during pregnancy
Brest Care
Disadvantage of artificial feeding
Weaning
High risk children
Care of the new born
G Management of premature and IUGR baby
G1 Physical examination of new born

G2 Growth monitoring in child health
H. Family planning 10
H1 Definition
H2 Concept of family planning
H3 Effects of population growth
H4 Factor affecting population growth
H5 Counseling for contraception
H5.1 Contraception
H5.2 Contraceptive methods
H5.3 Side Effects of contraceptive
I. Immunization 9
I 1 Introduction
I 2 Immunity
I 3 Vaccines
I 4 Expanded programme of immunization (EPI)
I 5 Cold chain & its maintenance
I 6 Vaccination schedule
I 7 Methods of delivering vaccines
I 8 Adverse effects of vaccines
I 9 Community involvement in immunization
J. Infectious diseases:
Introduction, Clinical features and Prevention (Briefly) of the following diseases 10
J1 Measles
J2 Rubella
J3 Whooping cough
J4 Diphtheria
J5 Rabies
J6 Tetanus
J7 Chicken pox
J8 Mumps
J9 Typhoid fever
J10 Bacillary dysentery
J11 Food poisoning
J12 Tuberculosis
J13 Poliomyelitis
J14 Pertussis
J15 Bird flue
J16 Dengue
K. Tropical disease:
Introduction, Clinical features & Prevention (Briefly) of the following diseases 2
K1 Malaria
K2 Amoebiasis
K3 Cholera
L. Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
Introduction, Clinical features & Prevention (Briefly) of the following diseases 2
L1 Aids
L2 Gonorrhea
L3 Syphilis
M. Diseases of liver
Introduction, Clinical features & Prevention (Briefly) of the following diseases 2
M1Viral hepatitis
M2Cirrhosis
M3Liver failure
M4Hepatitis A, B, C and E
N. Mental health 6
N1 Mental health definition
N2 Mental illness
N3 Popular beliefs
N4 Classifications of health mental
N5 Mental health problem
N6 Concepts of community mental health
N7 Prevention of mental illnesses
N8 Community of mental health center
O. Drug abuse 4
O1 Introduction
O2 Phases of addication
O3 Types of drugs abuse
O4 Causes of drugs abuse
O5 Effects of drugs abuse
O7 Preventive measures
P. Health education 4
P1 Definition
P2 Health promotion
P3 Important of health education
P4 Responsibility for health education
P5 Stages of health education
P6 Principal of health education
P7 Planning for health education program
P8 Methods and techniques of health education
Q. Health management information system 3
Q1 Definition
Q2 Essentials of management information system
Q3 A well-designed MIS should have the following factors
Q4 Important of MIS
R. EPIDEMIOLOGY 3
R1 Definition
R2 Determinants
R3 Clinical epidemiology
R4 Occupational epidemiology
R5 Important of Epidemiology
R6Health indicators
R6.1 Crude birth rate
R6.2 Crude death rate
R7.3 Infant mortality rate
R8.4 Life expectancy at birth
R9.5 Growth rate
R10.6 Fertility rate
S. HEATH SYSTEM RESEARCH 6
S1 Definition
S2 Importance
3 Epidemiological methods
S4 Disease screening
S5 Sensitivity
S6 Specificity
S7 Control of disease epidemic
T. BIOMEDICAL ETHICS 6
T1 Introduction
T2 Equity
T3 Utility
T4 Equality
T5 Human Rights
T6 Autonomy
T7 Beneficence
T8 Non-malfeasance
T9 Justice
Recommended Books:
Public health for PARA Medic and nurses by Dr. Khalid Mahood.
Reference BookK Park’s community medicine (Reference Book) by K Park 2003 published by
Banarside Bhanot Jaipur India

COURSE TITLE: PRE-OPERATIVE MEDICATION, ASSESSMENT &
EQUIPMENTS AND CLINICAL PRACTICE
MARKS

STUDY HOURS: 60+160 THEORY
PRACTICAL:
120
PAPER:
Term :
01
4th
30
03HRS
TIME :
COURSE CONTENTS STUDY HOURS
(Theory +Practical)
A. PRE-OPERATIVE MEDICATION & ASSESSMENT
A1. Objectives of pre-operative medications,
30+40
A2. Drug and their mode of action
A3. Benzodiazepines
A4. Diazepam
A5. Midazolam
A6. Lexatonil
A7. Opioids:
A8. Phenothiazine
A9. Anticholinergics
A10. Atrophine, pyrolate
A11. Beta-blockers
A12. Inotroes:
A13. Dopamine
A14. Dubutamine
A15. Adrenaline
A16. Ephedrine
B. EQUIPMENTS:
B1. Anesthesia machin
30+40
B2. (Maintenance, Operating and disinfections)
B3. Anesthesia circuits
B4. Ventilators (Brief Introduction)
B5. Gas supply, cylinders
B6. Pipeline
B7. Liquid oxygen
B8. Soda lim
B9. Venturi injector device
B10. Savenging system
C. PRACTICAL
(Practical work in different opreation theter)
80
C1. General surgery
C2. Neuro surgery
C3. Cardio vascular surgery
C4. Cardio thorax surgery
Recommended Books:
1. A practice of Anesthesia Wylie And Churchill Davidson’s
2. Hazards And Complications of Anesthesia by T.H Taylor
3. Practical Anesthesia for Surgical Emergency by Peter W. Jackson
4. Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses by Evelyn C.Pearce
5. Clinical Anesthesiology by Morgon Publisher MC Graw Health 3rd Edition in 2005
6. Pharmacology by Shameem
Reference Books:
1. Pharmacology and Medical Physiology in Anesthesia by Robert K
2. Text of Anesthesia by Alan R. Atkin by Churchill
3. Clinical Anatomy for medical students by Richard Smell
COURSE TITLE: ANESTHESIA, COEXISTING DISEASES & SHOCK AND
CLINICAL PRACTICE
STUDY HOURS:
PAPER:
TERM:
60+160
02
4th
THEORY
PRACTICAL:
TIME
120
30
03HRS
:
COURSE CONTENTS STUDY HOURS
(Theory +Practical)
A. Shock 30+20
Brief introduction of the following
A1. Different types & treatment
A2. Assessment of difficult airway
A3. Laryngeal masks
A4. Management of patient with full stomach
A5. Blood transfusion, Crystalloids, Colloids
A6. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
B. Anesthesia & coexisting diseases (Brief Introduction) 30+40
B1. Ischemic heart diseases
B2. Hypertension
B3. Diabetes mellitus
B4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
B5. Asthma
B6. Hyperthyroidism
B7. Hypothyroidism
B8. Myasthenia gravis
B9. Hepatic failure
B10. Chronic renal failure
C. PRACTICAL
(practical work in different opreation theter)
100
C1. Peadriatica surgery
C2. Orthopeadic surgery
C3. Gynee and obstrective surgery
C4. ENT
C5. EYE surgery
Recommended Books:
1. A practice of Anesthesia Wylie And Churchill Davidson’s
2. Hazards And Complications of Anesthesia by T.H Taylor
3. Practical Anesthesia for Surgical Emergency by Peter W. Jackson
4. Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses by Evelyn C.Pearce
5. Clinical Anesthesiology by Morgon Publisher MC Graw Health 3rd Edition in 2005
6. Pharmacology by Shameem
Reference Books:
1. Pharmacology and Medical Physiology in Anesthesia by Robert K
2. Text of Anesthesia by Alan R. Atkin by Churchill
3. Clinical Anatomy for medical students by Richard Smell

ANESTHESIA TECHNIQUES-I AND CLINICAL
A 1. Respiratory system
A1.1 Mouth
A1.2 Nose
A1.3 Pharynx
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
A1.4 Larynx
A1.4.1 Cartilages
A1.4.2 Ligaments
A1.4.3 Muscles
External
Internal
A1.5 Blood supply
A1.6 Nerve supply
A1.7 Trachea & Bronchial tree
A1.7.1 Division
A1.7.2 Blood supply
A1.7.3 Nerve supply
A1.8 Mediastinum
A1.8.1 Parts
A1.8.2 Contents
A1.9 Lungs
A1.9.1 Structures/ lobes
A1.9.2 Blood supply
A1.9.3 Nerve supply
A 2. Cardiovascular system
A2.1 Heart
Valves
Conducting system
A2.2 X-ray marking of heart borders
A 3. Nervous system
A3.1 Brain & spinal cord
A3.2 Vertebral column
A3.3 Cranial nerves
A3.4 Spinal nerves
A3.5 Autonomic nervous system (Brief Introduction)
Sympathetic N.S
Parasympathetic N.S

B.
B 1.
SPECIAL PHYSIOLOLGY
Respiratory system
B1.1 Control of respiration
20+30
B1.2 Mechanics of respiration
B1.2.1 Tidal volume
B1.2.2 Residual volume
B1.2.3 Vital capacity
B1.2.4 Dead space Anatomical and physiological
B1.3 Respiratory reflexes
Cough reflex
Laryngospasm
B1.4 Gas exchange & transport
B 2.Cardiovascular system
B2.1. Heart rate regulation
B2.2 Coronary circulation
B2.3 Cardiac cycle
B2.4 Cardiac output & regulating factors
B2.5 Arterial blood pressure & regulating factors
B2.6 ECG
B 3. Nervous system
B3.1 Brain stem functions
B3.2 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
B3.3 Cerebral circulation
B3.4 Synapse
B3.5 Neuromuscular junction
C. ZONES OF INTEREST TO ANESTHETIST (Briefly)
C1 Diaphragm
10+10
C2. Intercostals space
C3. Ante-Cubital fossa
4. C4. Thoracic inlet
E. Practical 80
E1. Introduction to Anesthesia Department
E2. Introduction to Electro – Medical Equipment used in Anesthesia
E3. Maintenance of Electro-Medical Equipment
E4. Operating of Electro-Medical Equipment
E5. Disinfections of Equipment
E6. Introduction to Anesthesia
E7. Scrubbing and its methods
E8. Safety and precaution
E9. Patient preparation before operation
E10. Stages of Anesthesia
E11. Patient management during Anesthesia
E12. Postoperative care and management
E13. Mix drugs & label
E14. Keep record of cases & any complications
Recommended Books:
1. A practice of Anesthesia Wylie And Churchill Davidson’s
2. Hazards And Complications of Anesthesia by T.H Taylor
3. Practical Anesthesia for Surgical Emergency by Peter W. Jackson
4. Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses by Evelyn C.Pearce
5. Clinical Anesthesiology by Morgon Publisher MC Graw Health 3rd Edition in 2005
6. Pharmacology by Shameem
Reference Books:
1. Pharmacology and Medical Physiology in Anesthesia by Robert K
2. Text of Anesthesia by Alan R. Atkin by Churchill
3. Clinical Anatomy for medical students by Richard Smell

COURSE TITLE: ANATOMY

STUDY HOURS: 120+40

The depth of the subject will only be diagram , labeling of the diagram. And brief

introduction.

Course Contents STUDY HOURS

(THEORY+PRACTICAL)

A Introduction 3+2

A1 Anatomical terms

A2 Anatomical positions

B The study of human cell and functions of organelles, Nucleus, DNA helix,

RNA, genetic codes Chromosomes.

B1 Cell Division 3+2

B2 Mitosis and Meiosis of cell

C BASIC TISSUES 3+2

C1 Different Types of tissues.

C2 Connective tissues.

C3 Epithelial tissues.

C4 Muscle tissues.

C5 Nervous tissues.

C6 Blood tissues.

D The Skeleton 18+4

D1 Definition of bone

D2 Types

D3 Name of bones (the skull, face, thorax, vertebral Colum, pelvis upper limb

and lower limb

D4 Diagram and labeling the following individual bones.

Clavicle, scapula, hummers, radius, ulna, sternum, rib, vertebra, pelvis,

femur, and tibia.

E The Joints 6+2

E1 Definition

E2 Type

E3 upper and lower limb joints and there movement.

F Muscular system 12+6

F1 Definition

F2 Types

F3 Important Muscles Name of upper and lower limb.

G The Gastro Intestinal Systems

15+2

G1 Mouth

G2 Pharynx

G3 Esophagus

G4 Stomach

G5 Small Intestine

G6 Large Intestine

G7 Accessory organs (Liver, Spleen, Pancreas & Gall Bladder)

H Respiratory System

6+4

H1 Organs of respiration

H2 Upper respiratory tract

H3 Lower respiratory tract

I The circulatory system

9+2

I1 Structure of heart. Different chambers of heart, main arteries arising from

the heart

I2 Main veins of the heart, branches of arch of aorta, Thoracic aorta,

abdominal aorta.

I3 Main vessels of upper and lower limbs.

K The Nervous System 15+4

K1 Introduction to

CNS central nervous system and Peripheral Nervous System

K2 Name different part of brain with short discretion.

Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Mid Brain, pons and medulla oblongata,

K3 Name of cranial nerves

K4 Name of upper and lower limb nerves

L The urinary system 4+2

L1 Structure of kidney, urethra, urinary bladder, prostate gland and ureter

L2 Differences of right and left kidneys.

M The Reproductive System 9+2

M1 Name of Male reproductive system with short description.

M2 Name of Female Reproductive System with short description.

N The Endocrine Gland 9+4

Short description and position of: -

N1 Pituitary gland

N2 Thyroid gland

N3 Parathyroid gland

N4 Adrenal gland

O The Skin 3+2

O1 Epidermis

O2 Dermis

O3 Sebaceous glands

O4 Nails

P The Special Senses: 6+2

P1 Brief anatomy of eye. Three coats/ layers of eyeball.

P2 Brief anatomy of ear Outer, middle and inner ear,

nose-inner and outer, Tongue, salivary glands,

Recommended book: Foundation of Anatomy and Physiology by

Kathleen Wilson.

Anatomy and Physiology for nurses by Roger

Watson

Reference Book Clinical Anatomy by Richard Snell

COURSE TITLE: APPLIED COMPUTER SCIENCES

STUDY HOURS: 40+40 MARKS

PAPER: 4 THEORY: 30

TERM: 1ST PRACTICAL: 20

TIME: 1.30HRS

Note: This is an introduction to computer science. A brief description and definitions of terms

will be taught to the students.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. An over view of Computer system. 1+1

2. The shapes of computer today-Super Computer, Main frame, mini computer, Works

stations and PC, 1+1

3. Input methods-Key board, Mouse, 1+1

4. Alter native methods of input-hand devices, optical devices, Audio-visual input devices.

1+1

5. Monitors and sound system-Monitors-PC. Projectors, sound system. 1+1

6. Printer and brief introduction to its types. 1+1

7. Transforming data in to information representation, process, speed etc. 2+2

8. CPU-types with definition 1+1

9. Types of storage devices – Magnetic and optical. 1+1

10. Measuring drive information-access time, file compression, transfer rate, interface

standard. 2+2

11. Basic of operating system-interface, programme, files, hardware and software

management 2+2

12. Definitions of Unix, DOS, Macintosh operating system, Windows, OS / 2, Windows NT,

95,98, 2000, Linux. 3+3

13. Words processing and Desk tope publishing software. 2+2

14. Spread sheet software. 1+1

15. Presentation programme 1+1

16. Networking-Standard telephone lines, digital lines, Network in the home. 3+3

17. Internet basics 1+1

18. Accessing, connecting, working on Internet, introduction to DICOM, PACS. 3+3

19. Working with images. 2+2

20. Understanding multi-media. 3+3

21. Basics of information system- Use, Parts. 2+2

22. Programming languages and system development life cycle. 2+2

23. Brief of computer crimes, Viruses, Theft and computer environment 3+3

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

Fundamental of I.T. concept by Nayaar Kanwal by CECOSE University

Teacher’s Notes

COURSE TITLE: BIOCHEMISTRY

STUDY HOURS: 60+20

The following bio chemistry contents will be taught briefly

COURSE CONTENTS Study Hours

(Theory +Practical)

6+2

A Introduction:

A.1 Biochemistry

A.2 Importance of Biochemistry

A.3 PH

A.4 Buffer solutions

A.5 Indicator

B Carbohydrates: 6+2

B.1 Definition

B.2 Classification.

B.3 Clinical significance

B.4 Caloric value of carbohydrates

C Proteins: 6+2

C.1 Definition

C.2 Classifications

C.3 Essential aminacids

C.4 Clinical significance.

C.5 Caloric value of proteins

D Lipids: 6+2

D.1 Definition

D.2 Classification

D.3 Fatty Acids. (Types, essential F.Acids)

D.4 Clinical significance

D.5 Caloric value of fats

E Enzymes: 6+2

E.1 Definition

E.2 Classification

E.3 Diagnostic role of enzymes

E.4 Therapeutic value of enzymes.

F Vitamins: 6+2

F.1 Definition

F.2 Classification

F.3 Water soluble (B, C)

F.4 Fat soluble (A, D, K)

F.5 Clinical significance

F.6 Deficiency disease of vitamins

G Nutrition, food & dietetics: 6+2

G.1 Nutrients

G1.1 Macro Nutrients

G1.2 Micro Nutrients

G.2 Food

G2.1 Food calorie

G.3 Main food groups

G.4 Milk and their clinical properties

H Metabolism: 6+2

H.1 Definitions

H.2 Metabolic rate

H.3 Basal Metabolic Rate

H.4 Factors affecting BMR

H.5 Variations of BMR in diseases

I BODY FLUIDS AND MINERALS: 6+2

I.1 Importance

I.2 Body fluid compartments

I.3 Extra cellular fluid

I.4 Plasma

I.5 Interstitial fluid

I.6 Intra-cellular fluid

I.7 Trans-cellular fluid

I.8 Composition of body fluid compartments

I.9 Diffusion

I.10 Osmosis

I.11 Osmotic pressure

I.12 Sodium

I.13 Potassium

I.14 Calcium

J ACID BASE BALANCE: 6+2

J.1 Definition

J.2 Regulatory processes

J.3 Chemical buffer system

J.4 Respiratory regulation

J.5 Renal regulation

J.6 Acid-base disorders (introduction)

Recommended book: Essential of Medical Chemistry by Mushtaq Ahmad

Biochemistry for Para Medical / Nurses by Dr. Khalid

Mehmood

Reference book: Lippincott, s Illustrated Reviews Biochemistry

Harper’s Biochemistry

Course Contents STUDY HOURS

A. The cell and its function 6+2

A1. Structure and Functions of a human cell

A1..1 The cytoplasm and its organelles

A1..2 Functional system of the cell

A2. Endocytosis & Phagocytosis

A2.1 Ingestion and digestion by the cell

A.2.2 Functions/Structures of Golgi apparatus

A.2.3 Cell Division

A.2.4 Cell reproduction.

B Circulatory system 3

Cardiovascular system (Heart and circulation) 12+4

B1 Description of Heart and vessels (arteries, vein, and capillaries)

B 2 Cardiac cycle, diastole and systole

B 3 Functions of atria and ventricles

B 4 Functions of valves

B 5 Heart pumping (Work output of heart)

B 6 Cardiac output, stroke volume etc.

B 7 Heart sounds

B 8 Introduction and function of Lymphatic system

B9 Introduction to blood pressure and measuring of blood pressure

C IMMUNITY 3

C1 Blood Cell and there function

C1.1 RBC

C1.2 WBC

C1.3 Platelets

C2 Composition of blood

C3 Plasma Protein

C4 Blood groups

C5 Coagulation of blood

C6 Definition and classification of immunity

C6.1 Antigen

C6.2 Antibody

D Respiratory System

12+4

D1 Function of the lungs

D2 Basic mechanism of respiration

D2 Inspiration, expiration mechanism

D3 Respiratory rate and tidal volume definitions

D4 Rate and control of respiration

D4.1 Chemical control

D4.2 Nervous control

D5 Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and body fluids

E Gastro intestinal tract. 12+4

E1 Ingestion of food, mastication (Chewing)/Digestion and Swallowing

E2 Functions of Saliva, Salivary glands

E3 Functions of stomach

E4 Functions of Saliva, Gastric Secretion,

E5 Storage function, mixing of food

E6 Function of small intestine

E7 Function of Secretions of the small intestine, secretion of large intestine,

Digestion and absorption of food

E8 Function of large intestine

E9 Function of secretion of large intestine,

E10 Digestion and absorption of food

E11 Function of Liver, spleen and gall bladder

E12 Functions of Pancreatic secretion, Bile secretion

F Metabolism 12+4

F1 introduction to Metabolism

F2 Introduction to fat Metabolism

F3 Introduction to protein Metabolism

F4 Introduction to Carbohydrates Metabolism, Role of glucose in Carbohydrate

F5 Metabolism, Transport of glucose in body tissue,

F6 Introduction to Lipid metabolism

F7 Use of proteins for energy,

F8 Vitamins and their metabolic role.

F9 Maintenance of body temperature

G Nervous System 12+6

G1 Functions of brain, cerebrum cerebellum spinal cord.

G2 Name of Cranial nerves and their supply

G3 Introduction to Autonomic nervous system and their function briefly (Parts and

functions)

H Endocrine Glands. 12+4

H1 Introduction to endocrine glands

H2 The pituitary hormones and their functions

H3 The thyroid hormone, and there function

H4 The adreno cortical hormones and there function

H5 Parathyroid hormones and their functions

I Reproductive System 12+4

I1 Functions of the male reproductive organs

I2 Functions of the female reproductive system

I3 Testosterone and other male sex hormones

I4 Pregnancy, Lactation and female hormones

J Urinary System 12+4

J1 Function of Kidney

J2 Function of Urinary bladder

J3 Micturition

K Special Senses 12+4

K1 Introduction to Sensory organs and their function

K2 Functions and refracting function of eye

K3 Function of external ear, middle ear and internal ear

K5 The functions of Tongue and salivary glands.

K6 The functions of nose and tonsils / Adenoids.

K7 The functions of skin and its appendages

Recommended Book Foundations of anatomy and physiology by Kathleen

J.W.Wilson

Anatomy Physiology for nurses by Roger Watson.